|| Sarga 51 ||

|| Tattva Dipika ||

|| om tat sat||

Sarga 51

"शक्तो रामो महायशाः"

"शक्तो रामो" | Rama has that power.
What is that Power?
"पुनरेवा तथा स्रष्टुं" " To create again like that."
What is being recreated?
"सभूतान् स चराचरान् सर्वलोकान्"
"the whole world with all the moving and nonmoving elements".

These are words of Hanuma about Rama.
Who has that power?
The Supreme being.
He is the creator, maintainer and destroyer.
He is the one with that great fame.

In Shrutis it is said that
"न तस्ये शे कश्चन तस्य नाम महद्यशः".
The Supreme being has the other name of "महद्यशः".
Here too Hanuman refers to Rama as "महा यशाः",
thus, highlighting the divine aspect of Rama.

All this flow out of Hanuma saying
'सत्यं राक्षस राजेंद्र",
'King of Rakshasas, that is the truth'.
This is the message from Hanuma.

When one hears Hanuma's message to Ravana,
one is reminded of the first impression of Rama about Hanuma.
Those words of Rama, on the Rishyamuka mountain,
about Hanuma were addressed to Lakshmana.
Those words ring true.

Rama said at that time
"नानृग्वेद विनीतस्य नायुजुर्वेदधारिणः।
ना सामवेद विदुषः शक्यमेवं सुभाषितुम्॥
नूनं व्याकरणं कृतम् अनेन .. "।

Meaning that only one who mastered the four Vedas
could speak as flawlessly as Hanuma.
Rama says,
"He mastered the grammar fully.
Having spoken so long there was not a single misspoken word.
He won my heart with his words"

This is the praise garnered by Hanuma after the first moment of the meeting.
Sundarakanda is replete with memorable instances of Hanuma.
Hanuma's valor, intelligence, and knowledge.
When he first spoke to Sita about Ikshwakus,
we hear his brilliance at speaking purposefully.
Asked to recite Rama's virtues,
we could hear the flowing description.

Now in the assembly of Ravana, acting as the messenger of Rama,
we see the skilled wordsmith that is Hanuma.

We now hear his message in the assembly of Ravana.

He starts as follows.

अहं सुग्रीव संदेशात् इह प्राप्तस्तवालयम्।'
'I have come here to your palace with a message from Sugriva.
The King of Vanaras, who is like a brother, asks about your welfare.
You may hear the message of the great self, your brother,
which is pertinent to this world,
and the other world too.
And is consistent with righteousness and propriety,
and is beneficial too'.

Hanuma's words are
"धर्मार्थोपहितं वाक्यं",
essentially lines of righteous conduct.

Hanuman continued.

'The king named Dasaratha
who is richly endowed with chariots, horses and elephants,
is a friend of this world, equal to Indra in splendor.
His very dear eldest son,
the lord by name Rama, is highly effulgent one.
He is righteous, followed a path on the orders of his father and went in exile.
He entered Dandaka forest with his brother Lakshmana and his wife Sita too.
His wife Sita, a pious one, is the daughter of the great self, Janaka, the King of Videha.
The daughter of Janaka, is lost in the forest.
While searching for her, the prince along with his brother reached Rishyamuka.
There the brothers met with Sugriva,
Searching for Sita has been promised by Sugriva.
Securing the kingdom of Vanaras was promised by Rama'.

'Then the prince, killing Vali in a battle,
made Sugriva as the leader of the kingdom of Vanaras.
Vali, the best of Vanaras is known to you earlier.
He was killed with one arrow by Rama in the war.
Sugriva, the king of Vanaras who battles for truth,
anxious for searching for Sita, sent Vanaras in all directions.
Thousands of Vanaras are deployed for searching Sita.
Search is on in all directions, in the skies and in the underworld too.
Vanaras are swift footed and powerful.
Some are like Garuda.
Some are like wind god,
Some can go anywhere without touching the ground'.

At this point Hanuma introduces himself as the son of Vayu.
'अहं तु हनुमान्नाम मारुतस्यौरसः सुतः'
That is probably to leave no doubts in Ravana's mind
about his flying across the ocean.
Hanuma continues.

'I am known as Hanuman, Maruti's own son.
Looking for Sita, I quickly jumped across the hundred Yojana wide ocean.
While moving around, I have seen the daughter of Janaka in your palace.
You are knower of the truth of righteousness, carried great austerities.
Such a wise person, abducting another's wife is not appropriate for you.

'Respectable people, wise ones, do not indulge in acts
which are unrighteous,
which strike at the very root of existence.
Even Devas or Indra cannot stop the arrows
let loose by Lakshmana or an angered Rama.
Oh King! After displeasing Rama,
there is none in the three worlds who can experience happiness'.

Then Hanuma delivers his advice good for all times.

'तत्रिकालहितं वाक्यं धर्म्यमर्थानुबन्धि च।
मन्यस्व नरदेवाय जानकी प्रतिदीयताम् ॥'

'Think of these words good for all three times,
which are righteous and meaningful, following the scriptures.
which provide you with material wealth.
Oh King! Janaki may be returned to the king of men.'

Here Ramayana Tilaka adds the following commentary.
That is about the 'all three times'.

||ति टी ॥तस्मात् त्रिकालहितम् -
सीताप्रदानेन पूर्वापराधनाशात्
भाविशुभहेतुत्वाच्च- त्रिकालहितम् ।
तदेव वाक्यमाह सीता प्रदीयताम्॥

"Giving away Sita is good for all times,
for the past sin of carrying away Sita,
the present riches of all types and
the future good happenings".

This is indeed a sincere sober advice from Hanuma.
Return Sita to Rama, the king of men.
That action alone will save him from all
past, present and future troubles.

Hanuma also cuts off other avenues of denial,
which the culprits normally tend to use.
Hanuma says very clearly.

'दृष्टा हीयं मया देवी"

He confirms that he has seen Sita,
which was exceedingly difficult.
So, denial is an impossibility for Ravana.
Further course of action is to be taken by Rama.
But Hanuma holds an olive branch.
And Hanuma tells him of the dangers of continuing to hold Sita in captivity.

Hanuma continues.

'This Sita, immersed in sorrow,
whom I have seen, and you have abducted,
is like a five headed serpent.
Like the food mixed with venom,
which when eaten cannot be absorbed,
this lady cannot be hidden by Devas or Asuras'.

Hanuma continues to give his advice,
which focusses on Ravana's own interest.

'तपस्संतापलब्धस्ते योऽयं धर्मपरिग्रहः ।
न सनाशयितुं न्याय्य आत्मप्राणपरिग्रहः॥'

Hanuma tells Ravana.
'It is not proper that the merits accumulated
by the virtue of your austerities
including the longevity of life, is lost at the cost of your life'.

Here Ramayana Tilaka has the following comment elaborating on each word.
'तपः संतापेन - तपसः करणेन लब्धः यः कर्म परिग्रहः (तत्) धर्मसाधकः महैश्वर्यमित्यर्थः।
सः यश्च आत्मप्राण परिग्रहः स्वप्राणस्य परिग्रहः चिरजीवत्वमित्यर्थः।
स च नाशयितुं विध्वंशयितुं न न्यायः।
एतेन सीता असमर्पणमन्तरा ते सर्वं विनश्यति इति ध्वनितम्॥

Here Hanuma is hinting that by not following his advice,
'नरदेवाय जानकी प्रतिदीयताम्',
that is return Sita to Rama,
Ravana will lose everything.

Hanuma raises the bar further by pointing out,
what Ravana missed in his boon
which he obtained to protect himself.

Hanuma tell Ravana

'By virtue of penance you think yourself to be protected,
from being killed by Asura and Devas.
Even here, there is a reason for concern.

Sugriva is not a God. Not an Asura. Not a Rakshasa.
Not a Danava or Gandharva or Yaksha.
Oh, King how will you protect your life'.

Here again Ramayana Tilaka says the following.
रा.टी॥ अस्य सुग्रीवः राघवश्च देवादिः न ।
किंतु सुग्रीवो हरीश्वरः राघवश्च मानुषः नित्य मनुष्यः।
एतेन आभ्यां तव अभयदानं नास्तीति सूचितं।
तस्मात् प्राण परित्राणां कथं करिष्यसि इति भावः॥
Hanuma is directly questioning Ravana about his boon.
Sugriva is a Vanara and Raghava is a human.
Ravana is not protected against both by his boon.

'Fruits of righteousness cannot be used in conjunction with unrighteousness.
Both yield fruits that are due.
Fruits of righteousness do not annul unrighteousness.
There is no doubt about the righteous fruits you have obtained.
This fruit of this unrighteous conduct will also quickly manifest'.
Having known the killings in Janasthana and the killing of Vali,
Having known the friendship of Rama and Sugriva,
know what is good for yourself too'.

Here we hear about righteous and unrighteous actions.
Merits acquired through actions of atonement alone
destroy the demerits or sins of unrighteous acts.
In the absence of atonement,
one must face the fruits of unrighteous acts.

Govindaraja in his commentary says,
गो टी॥तथा च क्षिप्रं धर्म माचर अन्यथा सद्यस्ते विनाशो भविष्यति इति भावः।
अत्र कर्तव्यत्वेन विधीयमानो धर्मः सीता प्रदानपूर्वक रामविषय शरणागतिरेव॥
Here Hanuma is saying follow the righteous conduct.
otherwise he will be ruined.
The right conduct is to return Sita and surrender to Rama.

Hanuma continues
'I have the capability to destroy the Lanka
along will all the horses, chariots, and elephants.
But that is not what Rāma has in mind'.

'Rama in the presence of all the Vanara groups
took a vow to punish anyone who troubles Sita.
Offending Rama even Purandara himself cannot live in happiness.
What to say of you?'

Hanuma again warns Ravana about the powers of Sita
'This one whom you know as Sita
who is under your control living here,
know her as the destroyer of whole of Lanka,
the harbinger of dark night.
In the form of Sita you are holding the noose of death on your shoulders.
Think of your own well-being'.

Warning Ravana not to bring about destruction of his clan and the city of Lanka,
Hanuma says again.

"सत्यं राक्षस राजेन्द्र श्रुणुश्व वचनं मम
रामदासस्य दूतस्य वानरस्य विशेषतः॥"

'Oh, King of Rakshasas!
Hear the truthful words of this messenger a Vanara,
specifically, the servant of Rama.
After destroying all the worlds along with all beings,
illustrious Rama can again re-create as before.

Here referring to Rama as "महायशाः"
Hanuma hints of divinity of Rama.
Ravana is a well-read man. He would know.
The only one who can destroy and recreate is the Supreme being.
He is also referred to as "महायशाः" in Shrutis
Hanuma is hoping that Ravana gets the hint of Rama's divinity.

Hanuma goes ahead tells Ravana
that Rama is equal of Vishnu in valor.

'There is no one among Devas, Asuras,
the leaders of men, hosts of Yakshas, Rakshasas,
all Vidyadharas, Gandharvas, Uragas, Siddhas,
Kinnaras, birds from every direction,
all creatures in all places, at any time
who could stand against and fight with Rama,
who is comparable to Vishnu in prowess'.

Now Hanuma tells Ravana that his life is in mortal danger.
"दुर्लभं तव जीवनं"
There is no doubt why it is in danger
'For committing such a grave offense
against Rama, lion among kings
and the lord of all the worlds.

Hanuma concludes his message with a thundering warning.

रुद्र स्त्रिनेत्रः त्रिपुरान्तकोवा।
इन्द्रोमहेन्द्र सुरनायकोवा
त्रातुं न शक्ता युधि रामवध्यम्॥

'Neither Brahma the Four-Faced, Self-Created,
nor Rudra the Triple-eyed
who destroyed the three cities,
nor Indra the great Lord of the Suras,
can protect one whom Rama has decided to kill'

Then Hanuman stopped.

That is a ringing statement.
Govindaraja in his commentary had the following thought.
गो टी॥ त्रातुत्वेन प्रसक्तप्रधानदेवतानिराकरण प्रकरणे
विष्णोरनुपादनत्वात् पारशिष्येत् राम एव विष्णुरिति प्रतिपादितम्॥

Govindaraja says the following.
Hanuma talking about protection (त्रातु),
mentioned the three main gods who cannot protect,
the one Rama decides to kill.
For emphasis he mentioned each of those three gods,
three times with three different names.
By not mentioning Vishnu, he effectively made it clear,
that Rama is none other than Vishnu.
Asking Rama for protection is the only way.

That is Hanuma's advice.
He clearly says Rama is the Supreme one.

For one whose mind is not in a condition to receive an advice,
such an advice is seemingly an unacceptable message.
Ravana is not one to accept such advice.

Valmiki says 'The ten headed one who has no equals,
hearing the extremely skillful unpleasant words of the Vanara
with eyes rolling in anger ordered the killing of the great Vanara'.

Thus, ends the Sarga fifty-one of Sundarakanda in Ramayana

|| om tat sat||
|| This is what we understood from Tattva Dipika of Shri Bhashyam, Appalacharyulu garu"||
|| om tat sat||