Bhagavadgita !

Chapter 13

Kshetra Kshetrajnya Vibhaaga Yoga !

Sanskrit text in Devanagari, Kannada, Gujarati, English , Telugu

||om tat sat||

अर्जुन उवाच:
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञ मेवच |
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयंच केशव ||

"O Kesava, I want to know about Prakruti and Purusha, Kshetra and Kshetrajnya too, as well as Knowledge and the One to be known."

Thirteenth Chapter
Kshetra Kshetrajnya Yoga
Sri Krishna Parabrahmane namah

This is the thirteenth chapter.

Some commentators see Bhagavadgita as the sum of three parts. The first six chapters form the first part and, dealing mostly with Karma, are designated as "कर्मषट्कं." The next six chapters, namely chapters 7 to 12, deal with devotion and are designated as "भक्तिषट्कं." The last six chapters, Chapters 13 to 18, deal with spiritual knowledge and are designated as "ज्ञानषट्कं." The thirteenth chapter is the first of the "ज्ञानषट्कंÓ; it is literally the first step on the path of Knowledge. So this chapter is about enquiry into the field of spiritual knowledge. The chapter raises questions about the six key entities in the knowledge domain, namely Kshetra, Kshetrajnya, Prakruti, Purusha, Knowledge, and that which ought to be known.

We have been hearing about Jnyana. Krishna has described Jnyana Yoga as difficult to pursue but that it is the best. In the seventh chapter, titled, "Jnyana Yoga," Krishna describes the two parts of His nature as higher Para and lower Apara. The lower Apara and the higher Para constitutes the living being—the जीवभूतं. This dual nature is the source of everything. Shankaracharya, in his introduction to the thirteenth chapter, says: "तत्र क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञलक्षण प्रकृति द्वय निरूपण द्वारा ईश्वरस्य तत्त्वनिर्धारणाय क्षेत्राध्यायः आरभते." This chapter establishes the reality of God by means of the study of the two powers, Kshetra (the "Field") and Kshetrajnya (the "Knower of the Field"). Both powers belong to God. Through enquiry into the dual nature of Para and Apara, as well as Kshetra and Kshetrajnya, Krishna seeks in this chapter to provide Arjuna with an understanding of the nature of Paramatma. That is the main goal of this chapter.

Chapter 13 is also a continuation of Chapter 12. Over the course of seven Slokas in Chapter 12, Krishna detailed the 35 characteristics of the worshippers of the imperishable, the unmanifested Brahman. Now, Arjuna moves on to enquiry into the unmanifested Brahman, the knowledge thereof, and attainment of the unmanifested Brahman. That is the start of the thirteenth chapter.

Thus, the first Sloka is in the form of a query from Arjuna.

Sloka 1

अर्जुन उवाच:
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञ मेव च |
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च केशव ||1||

स॥ हे केशव! प्रकृतिम् पुरुषं च एव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञ एव च ज्ञानम् ज्ञेयं च एतत् वेदितुम् इच्छामि ||1||

Sloka meanings:

प्रकृतिम् पुरुषं च एव - Prakruti and Purusha
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञ एव च - Kshetra and Kshetrajnya, too
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च - Knowledge and the One to be known
एतत् वेदितुम् इच्छामि - all of these, I want to know

Sloka summary:

"O Kesava, I want to know about Prakruti and Purusha, Kshetra and Kshetrajnya too, as well as Knowledge and the One to be known." ||1||

Arjuna's question sets the main points of discussion for this chapter: Prakruti and Purusha, and Kshetra and Kshetrajnya. But some editions of the Gita omit this Sloka. The chapter starts directly with Sloka 2, Krishna's answer to Arjuna's question.

Sloka 2

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिदीयते |
एतद्योवेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ||2||

स॥ कौन्तेय! इदं शरीरं क्षेत्रं इति अभिदीयते | एतत् यः वेत्ति तं क्षेत्रज्ञः इति तत् विदः प्राहुः ||2||

Sloka meanings:

इदं शरीरं - this body
क्षेत्रं इति अभिदीयते - is said to be the Field (Kshetra)
एतत् यः वेत्ति - the one who knows about this (body)
तं क्षेत्रज्ञः इति - he is known as the "Knower of the Field" (Kshetrajnya)
तत् विदः प्राहुः - this is said by those who know

Sloka summary:

"O Kaunteya, this body is said to be the Field (Kshetra). The one who knows about this (body), he is known as the 'Knower of the Field' (Kshetrajnya)." ||2||

Kshetra means Field, the land that is tilled. Just like the Field aiding the proper growth of the seeds planted therein, the body too aids the development of the seeds of Knowledge. So the body acts in the same way as the Field, hence the Kshetra or the Field is said to be the body. The one who knows the Field/Kshetra, or the body, is said to be the Kshetrajnya, the Knower of the Field. The Knower of the body is none other than the indwelling Atma or Self. This is stated by those who know the body-Self complex.

Krishna's elaboration of Knowledge is a continuation of the dialogue in Chapter 12. In that chapter, Krishna described, among other things, the characteristics of devotees or worshippers of the unmanifested Brahman. What is left to be elaborated is the True Knowledge (Tattva Jnyana) attained by worshippers of the Unmanifested. The nature of True Knowledge is revealed beginning in chapter 13.

The connection between True Knowledge and the Kshetra and Kshetrajnya can be understood as follows: The nature of the Supreme Being is twofold, Para (higher nature) and Apara (lower nature). This was first revealed in Chapter 7. Now, in Chapter 13, Krishna reveals Para and Apara are the same as the Kshetra and Kshetrajnya. Through this twofold nature, the Supreme Being is the cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the universe. This chapter is thus about the Supreme Being's twofold nature, which is same as Kshetra and Kshetrajnya.

This does not answer Arjuna's question fully. So more is to come.

Sloka 3

क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत |
क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञयोर् ज्ञानं यत्तत् ज्ञानं मतं मम ||3||

स॥ हे भारत! सर्वक्षेत्रेषु माम् क्षेत्रज्ञं च अपि विद्धि | क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञयोः ज्ञानं यत् तत् (एव) ज्ञानं (इति) मम मतं ||3||

Sloka meanings:

सर्वक्षेत्रेषु - in all the Fields
माम् क्षेत्रज्ञं च अपि विद्धि - know Me as the Knower of the Field
क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञयोः ज्ञानं यत् - Knowledge of the Field and Knower of the Field
तत् (एव) ज्ञानं - that alone is the knowledge
(इति) मम मतं - this is My view

Sloka summary:

"O Bharata, in all the Fields, know Me as the Knower of the Field. Knowledge of the Field and of the Knower of the Field, that alone is the True Knowledge. This is my view." ||3||

Krishna first stated that the Field is nothing but the body and that the Kshetrajnya is one who knows the Field or the body. But who is that Knower of the Field? In this Sloka, Krishna removed any doubts, by declaring that He is the Knower of the Field in all beings. By saying "सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत," Krishna emphatically confirmed that He is present in all beings.

One corollary of the statement that He is present in all beings is that the Jivatma (the Self present in all beings) is nothing but the Supreme Being. This is also the meaning of one of the Mahavakyas of the Vedas. The Mahavakyas of the Vedas and the Upanishads emerged from rigorous debate, they are realized by the Bhakta's own experiences. Here, the Mahavakyas comes directly from Him as a statement to be taken as a fact.

Krishna also said, "The Knowledge of the Field and of the Knower of the Field, that alone is the Knowledge." This means that Knowledge of the Self, including Knowledge that the Self is free from body, is the true Knowledge.

Sloka 4

तत् क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् |
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च यत् प्रभावः च ||4||

स॥ तत् क्षेत्रं यत् च (तत् क्षेत्रं) यादृक् च (तत् क्षेत्रं) यत् विकारि (तत् क्षेत्रं) यतः च यत् सः (क्षेत्रज्ञः) च यः (सः) यत् प्रभावः च तत् (सर्वं) समासेन (संक्षेपेन) मे शृणु ||4||

Sloka meanings:

तत् क्षेत्रं यत् च - that which is called 'Field'
यादृक् च - how it is
यत् विकारि - what changes it has
यतः च यत् - from what causes arise what effects
सः (क्षेत्रज्ञः) च - that Knower of the Field also
यत् प्रभावः च - to whom the powers belong
तत् (सर्वं) समासेन - that in brief
मे शृणु - hear from Me

Sloka summary:

"Hear from Me in brief about that which is called the Field, its nature, how it changes, and what causes give rise to what effects. And also about that Knower of the Field and to whom the powers belong." ||4||

Krishna declared that Knowledge of the Field and the Knower of the Field comprise True Knowledge. That being so, it is important to understand the nature of the Field. We also need to understand the Knower of the Field and His powers. So we hear more from Krishna.

Sloka 5

ऋषिभिर्भहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् |
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ||5||

स॥ (तत् ज्ञानं) ऋषिभिः बहुथा पृथक् विविधैः छन्दोभिः गीतम् | हेतुमद्भिः विनिश्चितैः ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैःच एव (गीतम्) ||5||

Sloka meanings:

ऋषिभिः बहुथा - in various ways by the Seers
पृथक् - separately,
विविधैः छन्दोभिः - different Vedic texts
गीतम् – sung
हेतुमद्भिः - full of reasoning
विनिश्चितैः - which are convincing
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैःच एव - which indicated Brahman

Sloka summary:

"This True Knowledge has been sung in various ways by the Seers, and separately stated in different Vedic texts. It is also revealed in the reasoning of the Brahma sutras, whose words are indicative of Brahman." ||5||

Knowledge of the Knower and the Field is very ancient. It is part of Vedic lore. It was sung by seers separately in Vedic texts. The Rigveda Suktas are traced to different Seers. It has been described and conveyed in convincing words. As an example In Taittariyopanishad, it is said about Brahman: "यतोवाचा निवर्तन्ते | अप्राप्य मनसा सह।", that is 'from where the speech and mind returned unable to comprehend (the complexity of Brahman)'.

All of this introduction to Kshetra and Kshetrajnya emphasizes that whatever Krishna is saying is ancient and hence long known to those with direct experience of this Knowledge. Now Krishna elaborates on Kshetra, the Field in Slokas 6 and 7.

Slokas 6, 7

महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च |
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ||6||
इच्छाद्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्घातश्चेतना धृतिः |
एतत् क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकार मुदाहृतम् ||7||

स॥ महाभूतानि अहंकारः बुद्धिः अव्यक्तं एव च दश एकं च इन्द्रियाणि पंच इन्द्रियगोचराः च इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं संघातः चेतना धृतिः एतत् सविकारं क्षेत्रं समासेन उदाहृतम् ||6,7||

Sloka meanings:

महाभूतानि - the great elements
अहंकारः बुद्धिः अव्यक्तं एव च - ego, intellect, and the Unmanifest too
दश एकं च इन्द्रियाणि - the ten organs and one
पंच इन्द्रियगोचराः च - five objects of senses
इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं - desire, antipathy, happiness and sorrow
संघातः - the aggregate of all these
चेतना धृतिः - sentience, fortitude
एतत् सविकारं - these along with their modification
समासेन उदाहृतम् - are briefly spoken as
क्षेत्रं - the Field

Sloka summary:

"The great elements; the ego, the intellect, and the Unmanifest, too; the ten organs and one (the mind); the five objects of the senses; desire, antipathy, happiness, and sorrow; sentience, fortitude; the Field is, briefly stated, the aggregate of all these, along with spoken as the Field, along with their many and varied changes." ||6, 7||

What Krishna began in Sloka 2 with "इदं शरीरं कौंतेय क्षेत्रं इति" ("this body is the Field"), He has elaborated on in Slokas 6 and 7. Now the Kshetra is not the gross body alone but includes the body complex (ten organs and the mind) and the eight components of Apara Prakriti—the elements (air, fire, earth, water, and space), the ego, the intellect, and the Unmanifest

In the next five Slokas, Krishna describes the attributes characteristics of the Kshetrajnya, the witness to the Field. What is the use of these characteristics? They are instruments for acquiring the Knowledge. By cultivating these characteristics, the Sadhaka becomes capable of acquiring the Knowledge.

Sloka 8

अमानित्वं अदम्भित्वं अहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् |
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ||8||

स॥ अमानित्वं, अदम्भित्वं, अहिंसा, क्षान्तिः, आर्जवम्, आचार्योपासनम्, शौचम् (बाह्यांतरशुचित्वम्), स्थैर्यम्, आत्मविनिग्रहः, (एतत् सर्वं ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम्)||8||

Sloka meanings:

अमानित्वं - humility
अदम्भित्वं - unpretentiousness
अहिंसा - nonviolence
क्षान्तिरार्जवम - forbearance and sincerity
आचार्योपासनम् - serving the teacher
शौचम् - cleanliness
स्थैर्यम् - persistence
आत्मविनिग्रहः - control of the body and organs

Sloka summary:

"Humility, unpretentiousness, nonviolence, forbearance and sincerity, serving the teacher, cleanliness, persistence, and control of body and organs." ||8||

The key characteristics of the witness to the Field are laid out: humility (not praising oneself); unpretentiousness; nonviolence (not injuring others); forgiveness (with an unperturbed mind even when there is some cause for mental agitation); sincerity (absence of crookedness); and dutiful service to the teacher. Cleanliness is as much about internal (mental) cleanliness as external (physical) cleanliness. Persistence is about putting forth effort again and again without giving up, even when faced with difficulties.

Sloka 9

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यं अनहंकार एव च |
जन्ममृत्यु जराव्याधि दुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ||9||

स॥ इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यम्, अनहंकारः एव च, जन्म मृत्यु जरा व्याधि दुःख दोषानु दर्शनम् (एतत् सर्वं ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम्) ||9||

Sloka meanings:

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यम् - detachment from objects of enjoyment
अनहंकारः एव च - absence of ego
जन्म मृत्यु जरा व्याधि - birth, death, old age, diseases
दुःख दोष - sorrows, weaknesses or imperfections
अनुदर्शनम् - thinking again and again about

Sloka summary:

"Detachment from objects of enjoyment, absence of egotism, and an absence of thinking again and again about the suffering inherent in human life, including birth, death, old age, diseases, sorrows, imperfections." ||9||

Detachment is a mental discipline opposed to craving. Pride is something that rises in one's mind with or without praise from others. It stands up as ego. Absence of ego is the true characteristic of a learned man. By letting go of thoughts about birth, death, old age, disease, and other sorrows of life, a learned person develops dispassion, creating the conditions for realizing of the Jivatma, the Self. This is the Knowledge.

Sloka 10

असक्ति रनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्र्गः दारगृहादिषु |
नित्यं च समचित्तत्व मिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ||10||

स॥ पुत्रदार गृहादिषु अनासक्तिः , अनभिष्वंगः , इष्टानिष्ट उपपत्तिषु नित्यं समचित्तत्त्वं च (एतत् सर्वं ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम्) ||10||

Sloka meanings:

पुत्रदार गृहादिषु अनासक्तिः - detachment from possessions, children, and wives and husbands
अनभिष्वंगः - absence of fondness for
इष्टानिष्ट उपपत्तिषु - with regard to getting the desirable or the undesirable
नित्यं समचित्तत्त्वं च - constant equanimity of mind

Sloka summary:

"An absence of possessive attachment to children, spouses, and possessions. Constant equanimity of mind with regard to desirable and undesirable situations in life." ||10||

श्लोकमु 11

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी |
विविक्तदेश सेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ||11||

स॥ मयि अनन्ययोगेन अव्यभिचारिणी (अचंचल) भक्तिः, विविक्तदेशसेवित्वम्, जनसंसदि अरतिः (एतत् सर्वं ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम्) ||11||

Sloka meanings:

मयि अनन्ययोगेन - with single-minded focus on Me
अव्यभिचारिणी भक्तिः - with unwavering devotion to Me
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वम् - repairing to a sanctified place
जनसंसदि अरतिः - not taking delight in assembly of people

Sloka summary:

"With single-minded focus on Me, with unwavering devotion to Me, repairing to a sanctified place, not taking delight in the assembly of people." ||11||

श्लोकमु 12

अध्यात्म ज्ञान नित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् |
एतत् ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तं अज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ||12||

स॥ अध्यात्मज्ञान नित्यत्वं, तत्त्वज्ञानार्थ दर्शनम्, एतत् सर्वं ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम् | यत् अतः अन्यथा तत् अज्ञानं (इति प्रोक्तम्) ||12||

Sloka meanings:

अध्यात्मज्ञान नित्यत्वं - steadfastness in the knowledge of spiritual discrimination
तत्त्वज्ञानार्थ दर्शनम् - contemplation of the Supreme Goal, True Knowledge
एतत् सर्वं - all of these
ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम् - are spoken of as Knowledge

Sloka summary:

"Steadfastness in the knowledge of spiritual discrimination, contemplation of the Goal of Knowledge of truth, all of these are spoken of as Knowledge." ||12||

Saying, "अमानित्वं अदम्भित्वं" in Sloka 8 ("humility and unpretentiousness"), Krishna proceeded to list the attributes of the Kshetrajnya, the one who has Knowledge of the Field. We have already noted that these attributes are also the instruments for acquiring Knowledge. In other words, the person with these attributes uses them for acquiring knowledge. Using these attributes, the Sadhaka becomes one who is capable of acquiring True Knowledge.

To recap Slokas 6-12, these are the attributes of the Kshetrajnya:

Humility; unpretentiousness; nonviolence; forgiveness; uprightness; service to the teacher; cleanliness; steadiness; self-control; detachment from objects of the senses; absence of the ego; perception of the suffering caused by birth, death, old age, and sickness, and other pains of human life; absence of possessive attachment to children, spouses, and things; tranquil mind in the face of likes and dislikes; ; single-minded devotion to Brahman; inclination to withdraw to holy, solitary locations; disinterest in gathering with ignorant crowds—these are the attributes of the Kshetrajnya. They are also the tools for acquiring True Knowledge. Moreover, Krishna confirms in this Sloka these attributes and tools comprise Knowledge itself ("एतत् सर्वं ज्ञानं इति प्रोक्तम्," meaning, "all of this is spoken as the Knowledge").

One may have a question how sincerity and unpretentiousness, for example, can be classified as Knowledge. Shankaracharya has an answer: "ज्ञान निमित्तत्वात्, ज्ञान सहकारी कारणत्वात्." Translated: Because they create conditions for acquiring knowledge, they are Knowledge itself. In other words, when these tools, which are also attributes of the Seeker, occupy the real estate of the mind that is ready, then the Self is experienced.

Having detailed the tools and the path for seeking the Knowledge, Krishna next proceeds to describe that which is to be known.

श्लोकमु 13

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यत् ज्ञात्वाऽमृतमश्नुते |
अनादिमत्परमं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ||13||

स॥ यत् ज्ञेयं यत् ज्ञात्वाअमृतं अश्नुते तत (अहं) प्रवक्ष्यामि | अनादिमत् परं ब्रह्म तत् सत् (इति) न उच्यते | असत् इति न (उच्यते) ||13||

Sloka meanings:

यत् ज्ञेयं - that which is to be known
यत् ज्ञात्वाअमृतं अश्नुते - knowing which one attains immortality
तत (अहं) प्रवक्ष्यामि - that I will speak of
अनादिमत् - the one without beginning
परं ब्रह्म - Supreme Being
तत् सत् (इति) न उच्यते - that is said to be neither being
असत् इति न (उच्यते)్ - nor non-being

Sloka summary:

"I will speak of that which is to be known, knowing which one attains immortality. The Supreme Being, the one without beginning, who is said to be neither being nor non-being." ||13||

Here, Krishna is talking about that which is to be known, namely the Supreme Being. What happens if you know what is to be known? "One attains immortality," i.e., he does not die. Krishna's description of the Supreme Being as "न सत् न असत्" ("neither being nor non-being") may sound bizarre. But that very strangeness emphasizes the difficulty of properly describing the Supreme Being.

The one to be known is the Supreme Being. The Upanishads describe the Supreme Being in a similar fashion. It is said, "That Brahman is different from the known and again, it is above the unknown." Similarly in Taittariyopanishad, Brahman is described as follows: "यतोवाचा निवर्तन्ते | अप्राप्य मनसा सह" ("From where speech and mind turned back," unable to comprehend the Supreme Being).

Speech has the capability to describe any being, anything that exists (Sat). Mind has the capability to comprehend any being, anything that exists (Sat). But speech cannot describe nor the mind comprehend what they saw as Brahman. Brahman is beyond speech or thought. Similarly, "Brahman is neither being nor non-being." Brahman is described by many such negations. Shankaracharya's Bhashyam has extensive commentary on this statement.

Now Krishna proceeds to talk further about the Supreme Being.

श्लोकमु 14

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षि शिरोमुखम् |
सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ||14||

स॥ तत् सर्वतः पाणि पादम् सर्वतः अक्षि शिरो मुखं सर्वतः श्रुतिमत् (तत्) सर्वं लोके आवृत्य तिष्ठति ||14||

Sloka meanings:

तत् सर्वतः पाणि पादम् - it has hands and feet everywhere
सर्वतः अक्षि शिरो मुखं - which has eyes heads and mouths everywhere
सर्वतः श्रुतिमत् - which has ears everywhere
(तत्) सर्वं लोके आवृत्य तिष्ठति - exists in all creatures by pervading all over

Sloka summary:

"That which has hands and feet everywhere, which has eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, which has ears everywhere, exists in all creatures by pervading everything." ||14||

Having said that the Supreme Being is neither a being nor a nonbeing, Krishna now moves to ensure that this thought does not lead one to think that there is no Supreme Being as such. Here, He speaks of Bhagavan in physical terms, describing the Supreme Being as having hands, feet, head, ears, and eyes everywhere. This kind of description also appears in the Upanishads. In fact, this Sloka appears as-is in Svetasvataropanishad (Sveta 3.15). This image of Bhagavan as described also appears in the Purusha Suktam.

Supreme being having, hands and feet, and other limbs everywhere means that the Supreme being is all pervading.

Some slokas from the Upanishads appear in the Gita as Bhagavan's own words. This Sloka is one such example. We will hear a few more lines from Svetasvataropanishad in the following Sloka.

Sloka 15

सर्वेन्द्रिय गुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् |
असक्तं सर्वभृच्छैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ||15||

स॥ तत् सर्वेन्द्रिय गुणाभासम् सर्वेन्द्रिय विवर्जितम् असक्तम् सर्वभृत् च एव निर्गुणम् गुणभोक्तृ च (इति उच्यते) ||15||

Sloka meanings:

सर्वेन्द्रिय गुणाभासम् - shines through the attributes of all organs
सर्वेन्द्रिय विवर्जितम् - though devoid of all organs
असक्तं - unattached
सर्वभृत् च एव - support of all too.
निर्गुणम् गुणभोक्तृ च - without the attributes, It is the enjoyer of the attributes

Sloka summary:

"Though devoid of all organs, It shines through the attributes of all organs. Though unattached, it is the support of all too. Without attributes, It is the enjoyer of all attributes." ||15||

Having focused on Brahman's physical aspect in Sloka 14, Krishna now poses a paradox: Without attributes, He shines through those attributes. What kind of attributes would enable that? An example is "Samatva." Samatva makes the Brahman in us shine. ( समत्वं योगमुच्यते; Equanimity itself is said to be Yoga; Gita 2:48). The Brahman who is the cause of creation, maintenance, and destruction is free from attachments. The idea is that the Brahman appears as though active owing to Its "shining through the functions of all the organs."

The thought—"though devoid of all organs, It shines through the attributes of all organs"—also appears in Svetasvataropanishad. In fact, this line is directly from the Svetasvataropanishad Upanishad (Sveta 3.16). Svetasvataropanishad also says, "अपाणि पादौ जवनो ग्रहीता पश्यत्यचक्षुः सशृणोत्यकर्णः." It says, "Though devoid of hands, It can grasp. Devoid of feet, It moves swiftly. Devoid of eyes, It sees. Devoid of ears, It hears."

Sloka 16

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानां अचरं चरमेवच |
सूक्ष्मत्वात् अविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिकेच तत् ||16||

स॥ (तत्) भूतानाम् बहिः अन्तः च (स्थितम्), अचरं चरमेव च, सूक्ष्मत्वात् अविज्ञेयं तत् (ब्रह्मम्) दूरस्थम् अन्तिकेच (इति उच्यते) ||16||

Sloka meanings:

भूतानाम् बहिः अन्तः च स्थितम् - exists inside and outside of all beings
अचरं चरमेव च - moving and yet unmoving too
सूक्ष्मत्वात् अविज्ञेयं - being subtle It is incomprehensible
तत् (ब्रह्मम्) दूरस्थम् अन्तिकेच - It is far away and very near too

Sloka summary:

"It exists inside and outside of all beings, moving and yet unmoving too. Being subtle, It is incomprehensible. It is far away and very near too." ||16||

Brahman is all pervasive. So is inside all beings as the Self, as well as outside them in their surroundings, the very air they breathe. Shankaracharya in his Bhashyam says that touch, which exists on the surface of skin, is outside, while the Self is inside.

"अचरं चरमेव च" ("It moves and yet it does not") can be thought of as the Brahman in all the sentient and insentient beings. Shankaracharya gives the example of a rope mistaken for a snake which moves, and as the recognition dawns it is realized as rope ( which does not move). Another example would be the dream-state; one is moving in the dream while actually lying on a bed, unmoving. Brahman too appears to move among the millions of beings while in fact It is unmoving.

One note about being faraway and near too: Shankaracharya says, "अविज्ञाततया दूरस्थम्," meaning that Brahman appears far away when It is not known. But then, he writes, "आत्मत्वात् विदुषात्Ó; "for those who know It, It is very near."

Sloka 17

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव स्थितम् |
भूतभर्तृच तत् ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ||17||

स॥ भूतेषु तत् अविभक्तं च विभक्तं इव स्थितम् | भूत भर्तृ च ||17||

Sloka meanings:

तत् ज्ञेयं - that knowable
तत् अविभक्तं च - though undivided
भूतेषु विभक्तं इव स्थितम् - It appears as divided in many beings
भूत भर्तृ च - Sustainer of all beings
ग्रसिष्णु - the Devourer of all
प्रभविष्णु च - the Originator of everything

Sloka summary:

"That knowable though undivided, It appears as divided in many beings. It is the Sustainer of all beings, the Devourer of all, and the Originator of everything too." ||17||

Brahman is one. But appearing in all beings, It appears as divided because It is assumed to exist in the bodies themselves. In chapter 7, we heard that through the two modes of Para and Apara, the Brahman is the responsible for creation, sustenance, and destruction. We are hearing the same thing here.

Sloka 18

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिः तमसः परमुच्यते |
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ||18||

स॥ तत् ज्योतिषामपि ज्योतिः, तमसः परम्, ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं | सर्वस्य हृदि विष्टितं इति उच्यते ||18||

Sloka meanings:

तत् ज्योतिषामपि ज्योतिः - lights up even those that light up
तमसः परम् - beyond the darkness of ignorance
ज्ञानं - It is Knowledge
ज्ञेयं - It is knowable
ज्ञानगम्यं - It is the goal to be attained through Knowledge
सर्वस्य हृदि विष्टितं - It is exists in the heart of all

Sloka summary:

"It lights up even those that light up. It is beyond the darkness of ignorance. It is Knowledge. It is knowable. It is the goal to be attained through Knowledge." ||18||

Svetasvataropanishad says, "तस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति" (Sv 6.14). Translated, this means: "The brightness of the Brahman lights up everything else." The same point is made here in this Sloka.

Sloka 19

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः |
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ||19||

स॥ इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं च ज्ञेयं च समासतः उक्तम् | मद्भक्तः एतत् विज्ञाय मद्भावाय उपपद्यते ||19||

Sloka meanings:

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं च - thus the Field and the Knowledge
ज्ञेयं च - the one to be known too
समासतः उक्तम् - briefly spoken of
मद्भक्तः एतत् विज्ञाय - My devotees having known this
मद्भावाय उपपद्यते - are ready to attain My state

Sloka summary:

"Thus the Field and the Knowledge, the one to be known too, are briefly spoken of. My devotees, having known this, are ready to attain My state." ||19||

With this Sloka, Krishna has answered all of Arjuna's questions. We will recap the dialogue of Krishna and Arjuna briefly.

Brahman, the one who needs to be known, is all-pervading, with eyes, heads, and faces everywhere. Brahman shines through the attributes of organs, despite not having organs; supports the whole world, though unattached to it; exists inside and outside of all beings; moves and yet does not move; subtle, and not easily known; quite near for those who know and quite far for those who do not. Though undivided, Brahman appears divided in all beings. It is the Creator, the Sustainer, and the Devourer of the whole universe. Brahman lights the Sun and the Moon. It lives in the heart of every being.

Shankaracharya says in his Gita commentary, "सर्वः वेदार्थः गीतार्थश्च उपसंहृत्य उक्तः." Translated, this means: "All of this is spoken by way of summarizing Vedas and Gita." In other words, this Sloka reveals the whole of the Vedas and the Gita itself.

Who is fit for all this Knowledge of Brahman? Krishna refers to "मद्भक्तः," meaning "My devotees." What do they gain from this Knowledge? Krishna's answer: "मद्भावायोपपद्यते," meaning that devotees become "fit enough to attain My form."

Sloka 20

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि |
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृति संभवान् ||20||

स॥ प्रकृतिं पुरुषं च एव उभौ अपि अनादी विद्धि | विकारां च गुणान् च एव प्रकृति संभवान् ||20||

Sloka meanings:

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं च एव - Prakruti and Purusha too
उभौ अपि अनादी विद्धि - know that these two do not have a beginning
विकारां च गुणान् च एव - the modifications and the qualities too
प्रकृति संभवान् - born of Prakruti only

Sloka summary:

"Know that these two, Prakruti and Purusha too, do not have a beginning. Know that the modifications and the qualities too are born of Prakruti only." ||20||

Sloka 21

कार्यकरण कर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृति रुच्यते |
पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ||21||

स॥ कार्यकारण कर्तृत्वे प्रकृतिः हेतुः इति उच्यते | सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे पुरुषः हेतुः (इति) उच्यते ||21||

Sloka meanings

कार्यकरण कर्तृत्वे - in the producing of the effect and the instruments (i.e., the body and the senses)
प्रकृतिः हेतुः इति उच्यते - Prakruti is said to be the cause
सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे - for experiencing the pleasures and pain
पुरुषः हेतुः (इति) उच्यते - Purusha is said to be the cause

Sloka summary:

"Prakruti is said to be the cause that accomplishes the effects and the instruments (in the form of the body and the senses); Purusha is said to be the cause of the experience of pleasure and pain." ||21||

Karya is the effect and Karana is the instrument. The thing responsible for producing them is the cause. So Prakruti is the cause. This needs a bit of elaboration.

Shankaracharya in his Bhashyam explains further: "कार्य शरीरं, करणानि तत्स्थानि त्रयोदश." So Karya means the body; and Karanas are the ten organs plus three namely, the mind, the intellect and the ego. The cause that produces Karya and Karanas is said to be Prakruti.

The different mental states that human beings experience—namely desire, anger, happiness, and sorrow—are caused by Prakruti. Thus by producing the effects and instruments, Prakruti becomes the cause of transmigratory life.

The one experiencing these changing mental states of happiness, sorrow, and so on is the Purusha. He experiences these in the state of ignorance. When the Purusha realizes that he is beyond these changing mental states, he is no longer attached to them. When he is detached from these mental states, he no longer acts out of desire, anger, happiness, sorrow, and so on.

Sloka 22

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान् गुणान् |
कारणं गुणसंगोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ||22||

स॥ प्रकृतिस्थः पुरुषः प्रकृतिजान् गुणान् भुङ्क्ते हि | गुणसङ्गः अस्य सदसद्योनि जन्मसु कारणं॥22||

Sloka meanings:

प्रकृतिस्थः - being seated in Prakruti
पुरुषः - the Purusha
प्रकृतिजान् गुणान् - the Gunas born of Prakruti
भुङ्क्ते हि - experiencing verily
गुणसंगः - attachment to the Gunas
अस्य - of this Purusha
सदसद्योनि जन्मसु - births in good and evil wombs
कारणम् - the cause

Sloka summary:

"Verily, seated in Prakruti, the Purusha experiences the Gunas born of Prakruti. His attachment to the Gunas is the cause of births in good and evil wombs." ||22||

Shankaracharya says, since the Purusha—the soul, the experiencer—is seated in Prakruti, which is characterized by ignorance, the Purusha becomes confused and mistakenly identifies with Prakruti. Therefore, It becomes attached to the body and organs and enjoys the material world ("भुङ्क्ते हि"). Shankaracharya summarizes this as follows: "प्रकृतिस्थत्वाख्या अविद्या, गुणेषु च सङ्गः कामः संसारस्य कारणमिति." Translated, this means: "The cause of this Samsara is ignorance as a result of being trapped in Prakruti and clinging to changing mental states, such as desire, which are caused by Prakruti. "Shankaracharya says: "तच्च परिवर्तनाय उच्यते," meaning that he mentions all of this "so that it may be shunned" or avoided.

Life is full of attachments—to family, friends, possessions, and ambitions. In Sloka 2.45, Krishna urges Arjuna to go beyond the Gunas, the qualities that give rise to attachments ("निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन"). In Sankhya Yoga, we hear that the Purusha, born of Prakruti and under the control of the Gunas, is lost in the cycle of birth and death. Once the Purusha breaks free of its attachments, he will be on the path to attaining Brahman.

Sloka 23

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः |
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन् पुरुषः परः ||23||

स॥ पुरुषः अस्मिन् देहे अपि परः उपद्रष्ठा अनुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः परमात्मा इति च उक्तः ||23||

Sloka meanings:

पुरुषः अस्मिन् देहे अपि - Purusha though He is in this body
परः - He is the other (untouched by the Gunas)
उपद्रष्ठा - the Witness
अनुमन्ता च - the One who permits
भर्ता भोक्ता - the Sustainer and the Experiencer
महेश्वरः - the Great Lord
परमात्मेति - that He is Paramatma
इति च उक्तः - is being told

Sloka summary:

"Though He is in this body, untouched by the Gunas, the Purusha is the other. The Witness. The One who permits. The Sustainer and the Experiencer. The Great Lord is said to be the Paramatma." ||23||

"उप" means being near, and "द्रष्टा" means Witness. Therefore, the Purusha in the body is the nearest One and is the Witness. In sacrificial lore, when all other people are engaged in performing the specified acts of the sacrifice, a priest is seated nearby as the witness, to monitor the proper implementation of procedures. That priest is called the "उपद्रष्ठा." In this Sloka, Krishna says that the Purusha is like that "उपद्रष्ठा."

This Sloka answers the question posed in Sloka 3 about who the Kshetrajnya is and what his powers are.

Sloka 24

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह |
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ||24||

स॥ यः एवं पुरुषः गुणैः सह प्रकृतिं वेत्ति सः सर्वथा वर्तमानः अपि भूयः न अभिजायते ||24||

Sloka meanings:

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषः - thus whoever knows this Purusha
गुणैः सह प्रकृतिं - Prakruti with all the qualities
सः सर्वथा वर्तमानः अपि - He, though continuing to live in any manner
भूयः न अभिजायते - will not be born again

Sloka summary:

"Thus, whoever knows the Purusha and Prakruti with the Gunas (qualities), is not born again, though he may continue to live in any manner." ||24||

Because of the interactions among the senses, mind, intellect, and ego, Purusha is seen as the enjoyer or experiencer of the results of such interactions. In reality, He is neither. When one realizes the true form of Purusha as the Witness, as the One who permits, as the Sustainer and the Experiencer; when one realizes Prakruti as the cause of all Gunas which must be overcome by Knowledge, then that person becomes the Knower (Kshetrajnya). Such a one becomes liberated from the cycle of birth and death.

After realization, one may not be wedded to a total renunciation. One may continue to perform his duties to the society. "सर्वथा वर्तमानः अपि", here means living like Janaka and others even after realization ( Janakaadayaha; Gita 3:20)

Sloka 25

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना |
अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ||25||

स॥ आत्मानं केचित् आत्मनि आत्मना ध्यानेन पश्यन्ति | अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन (पश्यन्ति) | अपरे कर्मयॊगेन च (पश्यन्ति) ||25||

Sloka meanings:

आत्मानं केचित् पश्यन्ति - some people realize the Self
ध्यानेन - through meditation
आत्मना आत्मनि - with the help of the mind in their intellect
अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन - some others with the help of Sankhya
अपरे कर्मयोगेन च - yet others with the help of Karma Yoga
पश्यन्ति - realize

Sloka summary:

"Some people realize the Self through meditation in their intellect with the help of mind. Some others realize the Self with the help of Sankhya. Still others (realize the Self) with the help of Karma Yoga." ||25||

Some attain the Self through their own efforts (through the yoga of meditation). Some others by the yoga of Knowledge (Sankhya Yoga). Yet others through the yoga of action (Karma Yoga). There are still others who attain liberation by listening to other people who worship the truth.

Sloka 26

अन्ये त्वेव मजानन्तः श्रुत्वाऽन्येभ्य उपासते |
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणः ||26||

स॥ अन्येतु एवम् अजानन्तः अन्येभ्यः श्रुत्वा (ब्रह्मन्) उपासते | श्रुतिपरायणाः ते अपि मृत्युं अतितरन्ति एव ||26||

Sloka meanings:

अन्येतु एवम् अजानन्तः - some not knowing this
अन्येभ्यः श्रुत्वा – hearing from others (about the Self)
(ब्रह्मन्) उपासते – worship (Brahman)
श्रुतिपरायणाः ते अपि – intent on hearing, they also
मृत्युं अतितरन्ति एव – certainly overcome death

Sloka summary:

"Some, not knowing this (Truth about the Self), hear it from others and worship accordingly. They, intent on hearing, also certainly overcome death." ||26||

Here, अजानन्तः means those who did not know Sankhya Yoga or Karma Yoga. They worship according to what they hear from their teachers. That worship is imbued with faith, and thus also cross the sea of Samsara.

Sloka 27

यावत्संजायते किंचित् सत्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् |
क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञ संयोगात् तद्विद्धि भतर्षभ ||27||

स॥ हे भरतर्षभ! स्थावर जंगमं सत्त्वम् यावत् किंचित् संजायते तत् क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञ संयोगात् विद्धि ||27||

Sloka meanings:

यावत् स्थावर जंगमं सत्त्वम् – whatever moving or unmoving being
किंचित् संजायते – that comes into being
तत् – that
क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञ संयोगात् विद्धि – know that is because of the association of the Field and the Knower of the Field

Sloka summary:

"Oh Bhatarshabha, whatever moving or unmoving being comes into physical existence, know that that is because of the association of Field and the Knower of the Field." ||27||

Every birth of every creature in this universe has come about because of the relationship between the Kshetra and Kshetrajnya. One may wonder Purusha being the Knower of the Field, there should no association with Prakruti and no being there by. The Purusha, covered by ignorance and not realizing his true self, becomes preoccupied with Prakruti. That preoccupation causes the universe of moving and unmoving beings.

When Purusha moves beyond its ignorance, the realization of the Self occurs.

Sloka 28

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् |
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तम् यः पश्यति स पश्यति ||28||

स॥ सर्वेषु भूतेषु समं तिष्टन्तं परमेश्वरं विनश्यत्सु अविनश्यन्तं (इति) यः पश्यति सः (यदार्थं) पश्यति ||28||

Sloka meanings:

समं तिष्टन्तं परमेश्वरं - the Supreme Being dwelling alike
सर्वेषु भूतेषु - among all the beings
यः पश्यति - whoever sees that
विनश्यत्सु अविनश्यन्तं (इति) - as not perishing though it (the body) perishes
सः (यदार्थं) पश्यति - he perceives (the truth)

Sloka summary:

"Whoever perceives that Supreme Being (who is dwells alike among all beings) as imperishable even though it (the body) perishes, such a one perceives the truth." ||28||

Though the body perishes, the Self (Atman) does not perish. This is the teaching of Sankhya Yoga (Sloka 2.23). That is the Knowledge. The one who perceives this Truth about the Self is one who really understands reality. That Truth from Chapter 2 re-stated here in the context of the Kshetra and Kshetrajnya. This is a powerful statement.

Sloka 29

समं पश्यन् हि सर्वत्र समवस्थित मीश्वरम् |
न हिनस्त्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानं ततोयांति परांगतिम् ||29||

स॥ हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितम् ईश्वरम् समं पश्यन् अत्मना आत्मानं न हिनस्ति | ततः परां गतिं याति ||29||

Sloka meanings:

सर्वत्र समवस्थितम् ईश्वरम् - the Ishwara who is uniformly present everywhere (in all beings)
समं पश्यन् - seeing Him as being equally present (everywhere)
अत्मना आत्मानं न हिनस्ति - one does not injure himself
ततः - thus
परां गतिं याति - reaches the highest goal

Sloka summary:

"Seeing Ishwara as uniformly present in all beings, as equally present in all beings, one does not injure the Self with himself. Thus reaches the highest goal." ||29||

Sloka 30

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः |
यः पश्यति तथाऽऽत्मानं अकर्तारं स पश्यति ||30||

स॥ यः कर्माणि प्रकृत्या एव सर्वसः क्रियमाणानि, तथा आत्मानं अकर्तारं च पश्यति सः (यदार्थं) पश्यति ||30||

Sloka meanings:

यः पश्यति कर्माणि - whoever sees the actions
सर्वशः क्रियमाणानि - being done everywhere
प्रकृत्या एव - by Prakruti only
तथा आत्मानं - also (perceives) Self
अकर्तारं - as not the doer
सः (यदार्थं) पश्यति - he perceives the truth

Sloka summary:

"Whoever sees that all actions everywhere are performed solely by Prakruti and also perceives the Self as the non-doer, he perceives the truth." ||30||

Nature, in the form of the three Gunas, performs all actions everywhere. This is the teaching we heard in the earlier chapters, including in Sloka 2.45, "त्रैगुण्यवेदा विषयाः निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन". Shankaracharya quotes Svetasvataropanishad, "मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्धि. "This means, "Prakruti is Maya or the cause of ignorance." That is also the gist of this Sloka.

All actions are the result of the interaction of the senses, the mind, the intellect, and the ego. Purusha may see itself as the enjoyer though in fact the Purusha or the Self is the Witness. One who realizes that the Supreme Purusha is only a witness realizes the truth. This was also stated in Chapter 3; the Yoga of Action teaches that all actions are authored by the ego complex. The one who is free from that ego complex sees that Self is free from the ownership of all actions (I-ness and My-ness). The same thought is again expressed beautifully by Krishna another powerful statement.

Sloka 31

यथाभूतपृथक्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति |
ततेव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म संपद्यते तदा ||31||

स॥ यदा भूतपृथग्भावम् एकस्थं च ततः एव विस्तारं अनुपश्यति तदा (सः) ब्रह्मन् संपद्यते ||31||

Sloka meanings:

यदा - when
भूतपृथग्भावम् - the separateness of all beings
एकस्थं च - being rooted in one
ततः एव विस्तारं - then manifesting from that only
अनुपश्यति - sees
(सः) ब्रह्मन् संपद्यते - (he) attains Brahman

Sloka summary:

"When one sees the separateness of all beings as being rooted in One, and manifesting from that One only, he attains Brahman." ||31||

This Sloka echoes Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, "आत्मैव इदं सर्वं," meaning that, "All this is the Self only" (2.4.8). When one realizes that all the separateness in life is rooted only the Self, then one attains Brahman. Or he becomes Brahman.

Sloka 32

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात् परमात्माय मव्ययः |
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति नलिप्यते ||32||

स॥ कौन्तेय अनादित्वात् निर्गुणत्वात् अव्ययः अयं परमात्मा शरीरस्थः अपि न करोति नलिप्यते ||32||

Sloka meanings:

अनादित्वात् - being without a beginning
निर्गुणत्वात् - being free of attributes
अव्ययः - imperishable
अयं परमात्मा - this Supreme Being
शरीरस्थः अपि - though dwelling in the body
न करोति नलिप्यते - does not act, does not get affected

Sloka summary:

"Oh Kaunteya, being without a beginning, being free of attributes, this imperishable Supreme being, though dwelling in the body, He does not act nor is He affected." ||32||

Though dwelling in the body, this imperishable Supreme Being is not the actor (does not act). The indwelling Supreme Being or the Self is a witness only. All acts performed would have to be performed as though they are for Him only with no ownership.

Sloka 33

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते |
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथाऽऽत्मा नोपलिप्यते ||33||

स॥ सर्वगतम् आकाशम् सौक्ष्म्यात् यथा न उपलिप्यते तथा सर्वत्रदेहे अवस्थितः आत्मा न उपलिप्यते ||33||

Sloka meanings:

यथा सर्वगतम् आकाशम् - just as the all-pervading space
सौक्ष्म्यात् - being subtle
न उपलिप्यते - not get tainted
तथा - similarly
सर्वत्रदेहे अवस्थितः आत्मा - the All-Pervading Self in the body
न उपलिप्यते - does not get tainted

Sloka summary:

"Just as the all-pervading space, being subtle, does not get tainted, similarly the All-Pervading Self in the body does not get tainted." ||33||

This is an elaboration of the previous Sloka.

Sloka 34

यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः |
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ||34||

स॥ भारत! एकः रविः इमम् कृत्स्नं लोकम् यथा प्रकाशयति तथा क्षेत्री (क्षेत्रज्ञः) कृत्स्नं क्षेत्रं प्रकाशयति ||34||

Sloka meanings:

यथा एकः रविः - just as one Sun
इमम् कृत्स्नं लोकम् - this whole world
प्रकाशयति - illuminates
तथा क्षेत्री (क्षेत्रज्ञः) - similarly the One in the Field
कृत्स्नं क्षेत्रं प्रकाशयति - illuminates the whole Field

Sloka summary:

"O Bharata, just as one Sun illuminates the whole world, similarly the One in the Field illuminates the whole Field." ||34||

Sloka 35

क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवं अंतरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा |
भूतप्रकृति मोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ||35||

स॥ ये ज्ञानचक्षुसा एवं क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञयोः अन्तरम् भूतप्रकृति मोक्षं च विदुः ते परमं (मोक्षं) यान्ति ||35||

Sloka meanings:

ये विदुः - those who know
ज्ञानचक्षुसा एवं - with the eye of wisdom
क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञयोः अन्तरम् - the difference between the Field and the Knower of the Field
भूतप्रकृति मोक्षं च - (obtaining) freedom from the Prakruti of all beings
ते परमं यान्ति - they attain the Supreme

Sloka summary:

"Those who know with the eye of wisdom, the difference between the Field and the Knower of the Field, and the way of obtaining freedom from the Prakruti of all beings, they attain the Supreme." ||35||

"मोक्ष" means obtaining freedom from Prakruti. The one who knows the difference between the Field and the Knower of the Field obtains that freedom.

इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्जुन संवादे क्षेत्र क्षेत्रज्ञ विभाग योगोनाम
ओं तत् सत्