Bhagavadgita !

Chapter 5 - Karma Sannyasa yoga !

Slokas with meanings in English

Sloka Text in Devanagari, Kannada, Gujarati, Telugu, English

|| Om tat sat ||
śrīkr̥ṣṇa parabrahmaṇē namaḥ
śrīmadbhagavadgīta
paṁcamādhyāyaḥ
karmasannyāsa yōgaḥ

Bhagavadgita
Fifth Chapter
Karma sannyasa yoga
|| om tat sat ||

The fifth chapter is Karma Sannyasa yoga or yoga of renunciation.

So far Krishna talked about Samkhya Yoga and Buddhi Yoga essentially teaching JnyanaYoga as well as Karma yoga in the second, third, and fourth Chapters.

In chapter two, namely Samkhya Yoga, after elaborating on the path of knowledge, Krishna talked about Nishkama Karma.
Krishna elaborated that, 'na hi kaścit kṣaṇamapi jātu tiṣṭhati akarmakr̥t' (3.05), no one can escape from doing action since not a moment passes without action. Then he explained the greatness of Nishkama Karma, and said following Karma yoga great people attained Moksha. Only thing required for following the path of action is will power. Further elaborating on Karma Yoga, Krishna goes on to describe the greatness of "Sthitapragnya" and jñāni. At the end of his discourse Krishna asked Arjuna too to follow his duty and fight.

This dual track confuses Arjuna. In the first sloka of the third chapter Arjuna asked specifically if Jnyana Yoga is better than Karma Yoga.

Krishna elaborated in depth about Karma yoga and even declared that Nishkama Karma is his philosophy, 'yē mē mata midaṁ', (3.31). Krishna gave the example of King Janaka etc who got Moksha following Nishkama Karma. Effectively stated that Karma yoga as the answer for Arjuna's query. Then Arjuna asked how is it that people commit sin knowing very well that it is wrong (3.36). Then Krishna again elaborated on the nature of human mind, specifically the desires that drive actions of the ignorant. To control these desires the need is for Buddhi. Then he again explained Buddhi yoga or Yoga of intellect which is JnyanaYoga. Then Krishna also elaborated on the greatness of JnyanaYoga.

Then in Gnyana Yoga, the fourth chapter, Krishna elaborated on the antiquity of Nishkama Karma. He said that over the time people have forgotten Karma yoga. That is why Krishna was teaching the same. Then he said if one does Karma while being in the state of Jnyana, then such Karma does not create bondage. Then he explained about sacrifices or Yagnyas to Arjuna. He elaborated on twelve types of sacrifices which can be easily understood and performed by common people. In that context again he elaborated that Jnyana Yagnya is better than all other Yagnyas. Which very much sounds like saying JnyanaYoga is the better one!

Hearing all this Arjuna again has the same question, which is better, Karma Yoga or Jnyana Yoga.
The Fifth chapter starts with that question.

||Sloka 1||

arjuna uvāca:
sannyāsaṁ karmaṇāṁ kr̥ṣṇa punaryōgaṁca śaṁsasi |
yacchrēya ētayōrēkaṁ tanmē brūhi suniścitam ||1||

sa|| hē kr̥ṣṇa ! karmaṇāṁ sannyāsaṁ yōgaṁ ca śaṁsasi | ētayōḥ yat śrēyaḥ tat ēkaṁ mē brūhi ||1||

||Sloka meanings||

karmaṇāṁ sannyāsaṁ - renunciation of action
yōgaṁ ca śaṁsasi - and the path of action you praise
ētayōḥ yat śrēyaḥ - which is better among these two
tanmē brūhi suniścitam - that you tell me for certain

||Sloka summary||
"You praise renunciation of action and the path of action.
which is better among these two, that you tell me for certain." ||1||

Here renunciation of action means path of Jnyana or knowledge.
Krishna has earlier said that for one who is aware of Self, there is no need for action. (" naiva tasya kr̥tēnārthō nākr̥tē nēha kaścana" 3.18). Virtually implying that renunciation of action for the one who knows Self leads to liberation. In the same breath Krishna also said Nishkama karma is his philosophy, yēmē mataṁ idaṁ. (3.31).

These two statements praising both path of action and path of knowledge, create a doubt in Arjuna's mind.
Hence the question.

Now Krishna elaborates again!

||Sloka 2||

śrībhagavānuvāca:

sannyāsaḥ karmayōgaśca niśśrēyasakarāvubhau |
tayōstu karmasannyāsāt karmayōgō viśiṣyatē ||2||

sa|| sannyāsaḥ karmayōgaḥ ca ubhau niśśrēyasakarau | tayōḥ tu karmasannyāsāt karmayōgaḥ viśiṣyatē ||2||

||Sloka meanings||

sannyāsaḥ karmayōgaḥ ca - renunciation as well as Path of action
ubhau niśśrēyasakarau - both are good for liberation
tayōḥ tu - Between the two
karmasannyāsāt karmayōgaḥ viśiṣyatē - path of action is better than renunciation

||Sloka summary||

"Renunciation as well as Path of action both are good for liberation.
Between the two, path of action is better than renunciation." ||2||

Krishna emphatically says that both of them, namely Renunciation of action and Karma yoga are,"niśśrēyasakarau", beneficial. They ensure good, namely "liberation "or Moksha. Both lead to same end result.

But then among these two, meaning that between simple renunciation of actions and the path of action,
Krishna reaffirms "karmayōgō viśiṣyatē" Karma yoga is the better way. The path of action is better than the path of renunciation of action, without the knowledge of Self.

The follower of the path of action is free from the taint of action even when he performs actions without aspiring for the fruits of action and offering the ownership of that action to the Supreme being. He is indeed a man of renunciation. He is a Karma Yogi, who does not desire anything.

Krishna continues.
||Sloka 3||

jñēyassa nitya sannyāsī yō na dvēṣṭi na kāṅkṣati |
nirdvandvō hi mahābāhō sukhaṁ bandhātpramucyatē ||3||

sa|| hē mahābāhō ! yaḥ na dvēṣṭhi na kāṅkṣati saḥ nitya sannyāsī (iti) jñēyaḥ | hi nirdvaṁdaḥ sukhaṁ bandhāt pramucyatē || 3||

||Sloka meanings||

yaḥ na dvēṣṭhi na kāṅkṣati - one who does not hate and has no desires
saḥ nitya sannyāsī (iti) jñēyaḥ - he is always a man of renunciation
hi nirdvaṁdaḥ - one free of dualities
sukhaṁ bandhāt pramucyatē - easily freed from bondage

||Sloka summary||

"One who does not hate and has no desires, is always a man of renunciation.
One free of dualities is easily freed from bondage " ||3||

One who has no hatred or desire, know him as a perpetual renouncer.
This is a definition of Sannyasi, even if one is in Grihastha Ashrama.
Being free of opposites, he is easily freed from bondage.

Both the renunciation of action and Karma Yoga are different paths.
These are followed by different people.
But the goal of both is same.

Goal being same, to emphasize that these two are not different, Krishna says the following.

||Sloka 4||

sāṁkhyayōgau pr̥thagbālāḥ pravadanti na paṇditāḥ |
ēkamapyāsthitaḥ samyak ubhayōrvindatē phalam ||4||

sa|| sāṁkhyayōgau ( karmayōgaḥ jñānayōgaḥ ca) pr̥thak (iti) bālāḥ pravadanti | paṇḍitāḥ na pravadanti | ubhayōḥ ēkaṁ api samyak āsthitaḥ (saḥ) ubhayōḥ phalaṁ vindati ||4||

||Sloka meanings||

sāṁkhyayōgau pr̥thak - Path of action and path of knowledge are different
bālāḥ pravadanti - ignorant ones say
paṇḍitāḥ na - wiseman will not
ubhayōḥ ēkaṁ api samyak āsthitaḥ- anyone properly resorting to one of the
ubhayōḥ phalaṁ vindati - wins the result of both

||Sloka summary||

" Ignorant say path of action and path of knowledge are different, not the wisemen.
Anyone properly resorting to one of the paths, wins the result of both." ||4||

That these two, the path of knowledge and the path of action, are different is said by,"bālāḥ" childish ones, those who do not know anything. The well versed do not say that.

Why? Because the destination of the both the paths is same.

Then one more thing thought.

||Sloka 5||

yatsāṁkhyaiḥ prāpyatē sthānaṁ tadyōgairapi gamyatē |
ēkaṁ sāṁkhyaṁ ca yōgaṁ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati ||5||

sa|| sāṁkhyaiḥ yat sthānaṁ prāpyatē tat yōgaiḥ api gamyatē |sāṁkhyaṁca yōgaṁ ca ēkaṁ (iti) yaḥ paśyati saḥ (ēva paramārtha tattvaṁ) paśyati || 5||

||Sloka meanings||

sāṁkhyaiḥ yat sthānaṁ prāpyatē - the state reached by Sankhyas
tat yōgaiḥ api gamyatē - that state is reached by Yogis ( on the path of action)
yaḥ paśyati - the one who sees
sāṁkhyaṁca yōgaṁ ca ēkaṁ (iti) - that Samkhya and Karma Yoga are one
saḥ (ēva paramārtha tattvaṁ) paśyati - he alone sees the truth

||Sloka summary||

"The state reached by Sankhyas; the same state is also reached by Yogis on the path of action.
The one who sees that Samkhya and Karma Yoga are one, he sees the truth" ||5||

The goal reached by Samkhya is the same that is reached by Karma yogis.
That both Samkhya and Karma Yoga are one is the truth. The one who can perceive this really understood the truth

||Sloka 6||

sannyāsastu mahābāhō duḥkhamāptumayōgataḥ|
yōgayuktō munirbrahma na cirēṇādhigacchati ||6||

sa|| hē mahābāhō ! sannyāsaḥ tu ( jñānayōgaḥ) ayōgataḥ (karmayōgaṁ vinā) āptuṁ duḥkhaṁ ( bhavati) | (karma) yōga yuktaḥ muniḥ acirēṇa brahmaṁ adhigacchati ||6||

||Sloka meanings||
mahābāhō - o Arjuna
sannyāsaḥ tu ( jñānayōgaḥ) - renunciation
ayōgataḥ (karmayōgaṁ vinā) āptuṁ duḥkhaṁ - difficult to attain without resorting to Yoga
yōga yuktaḥ muniḥ - sage engaged with Yoga
acirēṇa brahmaṁ adhigacchati - attains Brahman without delay

||Sloka summary||

"O Arjuna, renunciation is difficult to attain without resorting to Yoga.
Sage engaged with Yoga of attains Brahman without delay" ||6||

Renunciation, which is resorted to without yoga which purifies the mind, is difficult because of impure mind. Yoga purifies the mind. On the other hand the sage involved in Karma Yoga, by virtue of having a pure mind, become a meditator. By virtue of having pure mind, the man engaged in Yoga also realizes Brahman quickly because there are no obstacles to reach the state of realization.

On a more general note, for one engaged in Karma Yoga or path of action, the mind becomes purer. Thus one is in a better state to move in the direction of acquisition of knowledge. The path of knowledge is that much more easily accessible. This point is reinforced again in the later chapters also. It is not that everyone on the path of action moves to the path of knowledge. One could stay on the path of action without concern for fruits and reach the ultimate stage of liberation. One could choose to move to the path of knowledge and realize Self as a way of attaining liberation.

||Sloka 7||

yōgayuktō viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitēndriyaḥ |
sarvabhūtātma bhūtātma kurvannapi na lipyatē ||7||

sa|| yōga yuktaḥ viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitēṁdriyaḥ sarvabhūtātma bhūtātma ( karma) kurvan api na lipyatē ||7||

||Sloka meanings||

yōga yuktaḥ - one engaged in Yoga
viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitēndriyaḥ -
one with pure mind, one who has conquered his mind, one who has control of his sense organs
sarvabhūtātma bhūtātma -
one whose real nature consists in being all things and in being Self
(karma) kurvan api na lipyatē -
not tainted by the actions even while performing actions

||Sloka summary||

"One engaged in Yoga
"One with pure mind, one who has conquered his mind, one who has control of his sense organs,
one whose real nature consists in being all things and in being Self,
not tainted by the actions even while performing actions." ||7||

The Karma yogi here has been perfectly positioned. He is,
- one with pure mind (viśuddhātma)
- one who has conquered his mind (vijitātma)
- one who has control of his sense organs (jitēṁdriyaḥ)
- one who is Self in all beings (sarvabhūtātma bhūtātmā).

Such a one is not bound by any actions he may perform. (5.07)

One may wonder what are all these additional thoughts. Is it not enough if one following Nishkama Karma or path of action?

Nishkama karma is a first step.

Performing action and yet maintain equanimity in happiness and sorrow requires one to be pure mind (viśuddhātma). To be free of interest in the results of action (Nishkama karma) requires one to conquer his mind (vijitātma) which can rein in all thoughts running toward the worldly objects (jitēṁdriyaḥ). So these are not new thoughts. With these reinforcements one is able to reach a state of being equal to all and pleasing every one as though pleasing himself. Thus seeing his own Self in all beings.

Such a one is indeed one who realized Self. Such a one even while performing action, is not tainted by that action.

Having these qualities and having realized the truth, one will think that he is not doing any action even while seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing, speaking, releasing, or holding dedicating the same to God. And he is not affected by the actions too. We hear this in the next two Slokas.

||Sloka 8-9||

naivakiṁcitkarōmīti yuktō manyēta tattvavit |
paśyan śr̥ṇvan spr̥śan jighrannaśnan gacchan svapan śvasan||8||
pralapan viśr̥jan gr̥haṇannunmiṣannimiṣannapi |
indriyāṇīndriyārthēṣu vartanta iti dhārayan ||9||

sa|| tatvavit yuktaḥ paśyan śr̥ṇvan spr̥śan jighran aśnan gacchan svapan śvasan pralapan visr̥jan gr̥hṇan unmiṣan nimiṣan api indriyāṇi iṁdriyārthēṣu vartantē iti dhārayan kiṁcit na ēva karōmi iti manyēta ||8-9||

||Sloka meanings||

tatvavit yuktaḥ - one who has known the truth, and engaged in Yoga
paśyan śr̥ṇvan spr̥śan jighran - seeing , hearing , touching, smelling
aśnan gacchan svapan - eating , walking , sleeping
śvasan pralapan visr̥jan - breathing, talking, ejecting,
gr̥hṇan unmiṣan nimiṣan api- grasping opening and closing eyes
indriyāṇi iṁdriyārthēṣu vartantē - that organs are acting on the objects of organs
iti dhārayan - knowing with certainty that
kiṁcit na ēva karōmi iti manyēta - thinks that I am not doing anything

||Sloka summary||

"
"One who has known the truth, and engaged in Yoga
seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, walking, sleeping, breathing, talking, ejecting,
grasping opening and closing eyes, knowing with certainty that
that organs are acting on the objects of organs, thinks that I am not doing anything." ||8-9||

A realized man, even while doing all body related functions, realizing that those organs are acting on the objects of organs, thinks that he is not doing anything. He performs all actions offering the same to the Supreme being. Thus remains untainted by all actions.

The Sloka starts with, tatvavit, the one who has realized this truth.
To him all actions are of no concern.

Philosophically this is the state of one who sees himself as witness, not as a participant doing those things.
Does it mean that if he is doing something perverse can he remain untouched?
Of course not. As stated in the previous Sloka this is only possible for one who qualifies with yōgayuktō viśuddhātmāvijitātmā jitēndriyaḥ.

This Sloka uses 'tat', repeatedly. 'tat" is word used for Brahman. This gets elaborated in chapter 17.

||Sloka 10||

brahmāṇyādhāya karmāṇī sajṅaṁ tyaktvā karōti yaḥ|
lipyatē na sa pāpēna padma patra mivāṁbhasā ||10||

sa|| yaḥ karmāṇi brahmaṇi ādhāya saṁgaṁ tyaktvā karōti saḥ aṁbhasā padmapatraṁ iva pāpēna na lipyatē || 10||

||Sloka meanings ||

yaḥ karmāṇi brahmaṇi ādhāya - whoever dedicating actions to Brahman
saṁgaṁ tyaktvākarōti - performs renouncing attachment
saḥ aṁbhasā padmapatraṁ iva - he like the lotus leaf untainted by the water droplets
pāpēna na lipyatē - does not get tainted by sins

||Sloka summary||

"Whoever performs actions, renouncing attachment, dedicating them to Brahman, he does not get tainted by sins like the lotus leaf untainted by the water droplets." ||10||

Following the path of action, if one is dedicating the actions to God, and performing those actions without interest in the results of actions, he will not be tainted by sin.

||Sloka 11||

kāyēna manasā budhyā kēvalairindriyairapi |
yōginaḥ karma kurvanti saṁgaṁ tyaktvā ātmaśuddhayē ||11||

sa|| yōginaḥ ātmaśuddhayē saṁgaṁ tyaktvā kāyēna manasā buddhyā kēvalaiḥ indriyaiḥ api karma kurvanti ||11||

||Sloka meanings||

yōginaḥ ātmaśuddhayē - Yogis for purification of mind
karma kurvanti - perform action
saṁgaṁ tyaktvā - giving up attachment
kāyēna manasā buddhyā- with body , mind and intellect
kēvalaiḥ indriyaiḥ api - even only organs

||Sloka summary||

"Yogis, giving up attachment, for purification of mind, perform actions
with body, mind, intellect and even only organs." ||11||

Having given up attachment Yogis following path of action undertake work through the body, mind, intellect for the purification of themselves, and even only organs

He does all this for Self-purification ātmaśuddhayē. So, what does he get?
Being firm in his faith, and being free of concerns of fruits, the practicing Karma Yogi attains highest peace.

||Sloka 12||

yuktaḥ karmaphalaṁ tyaktvā śāntimāpnōti naiṣṭhikīm|
ayuktaḥ kāma kārēṇa phalēsaktō nibadhyatē || 12||

sa|| yuktaḥ karmaphalaṁ tyaktvā naiṣṭhikīṁ śāntiṁ āpnōti | ayuktaḥ kāmakārēṇa phalē saktaḥ nibadhyatē ||12||

||Sloka meanings||

yuktaḥ karmaphalaṁ tyaktvā- one engaged in Yoga, giving up fruits of action
naiṣṭhikīṁ śāntiṁ āpnōti - attains peace obtained by constant discipline
ayuktaḥ kāmakārēṇa - one not engaged in Yoga, under the impulse of desire
phalē saktaḥ nibadhyatē - being interested in fruits of action become completely bound

||Sloka summary||

"One engaged in Yoga, giving up fruits of action, attains peace obtained by constant discipline.
One not engaged in Yoga, being interested in fruits of action
under the impulse of desire becomes completely bound." ||12||

The one engaged in Yoga, being free of desire for fruits, engaged in the discipline of action attains a peace which is constant.

What happens to one who is not resolute in his faith?
Those who are not resolute in faith, because of attachment to desires, gets bound to the fruits.
Thus the one who is interested in pursuit of material happiness continues running after the results.

What is the state of the one who is in full control of his senses?

||Sloka 13||

sarva karmāṇi manasā sannyasyāstē sukhaṁ vaśī |
navadvārē purē dēhī naiva kurvannakārayan ||13||

sa|| vaśī dēhī manasā sarvakarmāṇi sannyasya na ēva kurvan na kārayan navadvārē purē sukhaṁ āstē ||13||

||Sloka meanings||

vaśī dēhī - embodied one in control of all organs
manasā sarvakarmāṇi sannyasya - renouncing all actions mentally
na ēva kurvan na kārayan - without doing or causing others to do anything
navadvārē purē sukhaṁ āstē - remains happily in the city of nine gates

||Sloka summary||

"The embodied one in control of all organs
renouncing all actions mentally, remains happily in the city of nine gates,
without doing or causing others to do anything." ||13||

'vaśī', means the one in control of everything.
He has his mind under his control. For the one in control of his mind there is nothing impossible. He can live happily. He is like a king living in a city of nine gates, which is actually a reference to the body, the King being the Self.

If he not doing anything and not causing anybody to do something, people may think that everything happens because of the Supreme being. To avoid that linkage of action to the Supreme Being, Krishna clarifies

||Sloka 14||

na kartr̥tvaṁ na karmāṇi lōkasya sr̥jati prabhuḥ |
na karmaphala saṁyōgaṁ svabhāvastu pravartatē ||14||

sa|| prabhuḥ lōkasya kartr̥tvaṁ na sr̥jati | karmāṇi na | karmaphalasaṁyōgam (api) na sr̥jati | svabhāvaḥ tu pravartatē || 14||

||Sloka meanings||

prabhuḥ - Supreme being
lōkasya kartr̥tvaṁ na sr̥jati - does not create ownership for anyone
karmāṇi na - or actions too
karmaphalasaṁyōgam (api) na sr̥jati - does not create association with the fruits of actions
svabhāvaḥ tu pravartatē - their nature acts

||Sloka summary||

" Supreme being does not create ownership for anyone, or actions too
He does not create association with the fruits of actions also. But it is their nature that acts." ||14||

That is to say -
God is not responsible for the ownership of action,
the action itself or the results of the action".
All these happen because of the nature of the human being
which is controlled by the three Gunas namely "Rajo, Tamo and Sattvic.
This is a very important statement coming from Krishna
Krishna continues.

||Sloka 15||

nādattē kasyacitpāpaṁ na caiva sukr̥taṁ vibhuḥ |
ajñānēnāvr̥taṁ jñānaṁ tēna muhyanti jantavaḥ ||15||

sa|| vibhuḥ kasyacit pāpam na ādattē |sukr̥taṁ ca ēva na (ādattē)| ajñānēna jñānaṁ āvr̥tam| ( tasmāt) tēna jaṁtavaḥ muhyaṁti ||15||

||Sloka meanings||

vibhuḥ- Supreme being
kasyacit pāpam na ādattē - does not take away anybody's sins
sukr̥taṁ ca ēva na (ādattē) - not accept merits too
ajñānēna jñānaṁ āvr̥tam - knowledge remains covered by ignorance
(tasmāt) tēna jaṁtavaḥ muhyaṁti - hence creatures become deluded

||Sloka summary||

"Supreme being does not take away anybody's sins, nor accept merits too
Knowledge remains covered by ignorance. Hence creatures become deluded." ||15||.
This is a simple truth
It means that Bhagavan is only a witness.
Witness to our good deeds and bad deeds and nothing more.

In reality our "Self" is a witness for our good deeds and bad deeds
In other words God, like Self, is only a witness

In Advaita, the God and Self are one, not two!
Why does this thought that God is responsible for all our actions and reactions occur?

So why this thinking happens?
Because the knowledge is enveloped by ignorance
Because of the over powering ignorance, the beings are mesmerized.
Mesmerized into believing that the "ever acting God" as the ultimate truth.

In a similar tone, but more clearly Krishna tells Uddhava in Uddhava Gita also.

prāyēṇa manujā lōkē
lōka tatva vicakṣaṇāḥ|
samuddharanti ātmānaṁ
ātmanaivāśubhāśayāt ||

It says that, 'lōka tatva vicakṣaṇāḥ', people who have knowledge of the ways of the world;

'samuddharaṁti ātmānaṁ', they will lift themselves up.
How? One may ask. 'ātmanaiva', by their own self.
From what they lift themselves up? From 'aśubhāśayāt', from inauspicious acts.

It says that people by their own discrimination power lift themselves up.
This is a simple fact. Krishna reiterates this truth again in Bhagavadgita sixth chapter.

Krishna says:
uddharēdātmanā ātmānaṁ na ātmanā avasādayēt |
ātmaiva ātmanō bandhuḥ atmaiva ripuḥ ātmanaḥ||

ātmanā - by own self
ātmānaṁ - himself
uddharēt - lift (himself) up

atmaiva ātmanō baṁdhuḥ - one's Self is his own friend ( if he wins over the battle of life)

atmaiva ātmanō ripuḥ - one's Self is his own enemy ( if he loses the battle of life ) .

na ātmanā avasādayēt , One should not degenerate by himself ( he should always move up) !

It simply means that one, by his own efforts, can lift himself up.
Anybody else may only show a way.
But the action has to be by the individual alone.

What is that action?
Nishkama karma and Samatva
Act without selfish goals and have an equanimity towards all.

That means in these four Slokas Krishna laid down the following.
- We can bring ourselves up.
- By our nature we may do good deeds or bad deeds
- But with our discriminating power, we can overcome that nature.

In a colloquial chat one may say, "By God's grace everything will be great". It is so in colloquial way only.

But these four Slokas tell us that everything has to be done by us. God has no role in this!

These are simple yet powerful game changing thoughts.

What Krishna is saying is that our sins and our good deeds are in our own hands. We are responsible for our own deeds.
If we conquer the senses, "jitēṁdriyaḥ" and perform Nishkama Karma then as stated, "śāṁtimāpnōti naiṣṭhikīṁ", what we get is the highest peace!!
What we attain with that peace is Moksha or liberation.
Krishna again talks about the knowledge. He says:

||Sloka 16||

jñānēna tu tadajñānaṁ yēṣāṁ nāśitamātmanaḥ |
tēṣāmādityavat jñānaṁ prakāśayati tatparam ||16||

sa||ātmanaḥ jñānēnatu ( ātmajñānāt) yēṣāṁ tat ajñānaṁ nāśitaṁ tēṣāṁ jñānaṁ adityavat tat param prakāśayati||16||

||Sloka meanings||

ātmanaḥ jñānēnatu ( ātmajñānāt) - with the knowledge of Self
yēṣāṁ tat ajñānaṁ nāśitaṁ - those whose ignorance has been destroyed
tēṣāṁ jñānaṁ adityavat - their knowledge like Sun
tat param prakāśayati - illuminates the Supreme

||Sloka summary||

"The knowledge of those, whose ignorance has been destroyed with the knowledge of Self
illuminates the Supreme like Sun." ||16||

||Sloka 17||

tadbuddhaya stadātmāna stanniṣṭhā statparāyaṇāḥ |
gacchantyapunarāvr̥ttiṁ jñāna nirdhūta kalmaṣāḥ ||17||

sa|| tat buddhayaḥ tat ātmānaḥ tata niṣṭhāḥ tat parāyaṇāḥ (tē) jñāna nirdhūta kalmaṣāḥ apunarāvr̥ttim( mōkṣaṁ) gacchanti ||17||

||Sloka meanings||

tat buddhayaḥ - those who have their intellect absorbed in the Supreme
tat ātmānaḥ - those whose mind is absorbed in the Supreme
tat niṣṭhāḥ - those who are steadfast on the Supreme
tat parāyaṇāḥ - those who have the Supreme as the Supreme goal
jñāna nirdhūta kalmaṣāḥ - those with the impurities removed by knowledge
apunarāvr̥ttim( mōkṣaṁ) gacchanti - attain a state from which there is no return

||Sloka summary||

"Those who have their intellect absorbed in the Supreme, those whose mind is absorbed in the Supreme,
those who are steadfast on the Supreme, those who have the Supreme as the Supreme goal,
attain a state from which there is no return, with their impurities removed by knowledge." ||17||

Those with their impurities removed by knowledge have the Supreme as their Supreme goal. Those who have the Supreme as the Supreme goal, move to the stage of being steadfast on the Supreme. Those who are steadfast on the Supreme have their minds absorbed in the Supreme. Those who have their mind absorbed on the Supreme have their intellect absorbed in the Supreme.

Such people move to a state from which there is no return. That is liberation or Moksha

||Sloka 18||

vidyā vinaya saṁpannē brāhmaṇē gavi hastini |
śunicaiva śvapākē ca paṇditāḥ samadarśinaḥ ||18||

sa|| vidyā vinaya saṁpannē bāhmaṇē gavi hastini śuni ca ēva śvapākē ca samadarśinaḥ paṇḍitāḥ (iti manyatē)||18||

||Sloka meanings||
paṇḍitāḥ - learned ones
vidyā vinaya saṁpannē bāhmaṇē - in brahmins who have a wealth of learning and humility
gavi hastini - cow, elephant
śuni ca ēva śvapākē ca - dog, as well as those eating dog meat,
samadarśinaḥ - perceive the same truth

||Sloka summary||

"Learned ones perceive the same truth in Brahmins who have a wealth of learning and humility
cow, elephant, dog, as well as those eating dog meat." ||19||

Those who have their intellect absorbed in the Supreme, those whose mind is absorbed in the Supreme, those who are steadfast on the Supreme, those who have the Supreme as the Supreme goal, attain a state from which there is no return. The single facet of such exalted person is that ability to see the Universal Truth of Self in all. That range include the learned Brahmins and the ones eating dogmeat.

That single important facet is also called samatva which translates to equality as well as equanimity. Whether learned or ignorant, cow or dog, Brahmin or a chandala, what is seen by the learned is the Self in them, which is same as the Self in him.

||Sloka 19||

ihaiva tairjitaḥ sargō yēṣāṁ sāmyē sthitaṁ manaḥ |
nirdōṣaṁ hi samaṁ brahma tasmādbrahmaṇi tē sthitāḥ ||19||

sa|| yēṣāṁ manaḥ sāmyē sthitam taiḥ iha ēva sargaḥ jitaḥ| nirdōṣaṁ samaṁ hi brahma | tasmāt tē brahmaṇī sthitāḥ ||19||

||Sloka meanings||

yēṣāṁ manaḥ sāmyē sthitam - whose mind is firmly rooted in equality
taiḥ iha ēva sargaḥ jitaḥ - the universe of duality is vanquished by them here itself
nirdōṣaṁ samaṁ hi brahma - Brahman is free from defects and same
tasmāt tē brahmaṇī sthitāḥ - therefore they are established in Brahman

||Sloka summary||

"The universe of duality is vanquished here itself by those whose mind is firmly rooted in sameness or equality.
Brahman is free from defects and same. Therefore they are established in Brahman." ||19||

This is about sages who are able to look on all alike, that includes the category of dog eaters who are considered tainted by ignorant people. Birth is vanquished by those sages here itself. Brahman is one and the same in all.
'nirdōṣaṁ hi samaṁ brahma,' Brahman is free from defects and same in all - is one more among many characterizations of Brahman.

Another important characterization is 'sāmyē sthitam', one whose mind is firmly rooted in equality. Thus being established equality is contributes to attaining that peace which characterizes Moksha.

In Yogavasishtam - the dialog of Rama and guru Vasista we hear the following

namōkṣō nabhasaḥ pr̥ṣṭē pātāḷē na ca bhūtalē|
mōkṣō hi cē tō vimalaṁ samyag jñāna vibōdhitaṁ||

Moksha is not in the Akas a or in the underground, or the on this land somewhere. It is simply the mind enlightened by knowledge.

||Sloka 20||

na prahr̥ṣyētpriyaṁ prāpya nōdvijētprāpya cā priyam|
sthirabuddhi rasammūḍhō brahmavidbrahmaṇi sthitaḥ||20||

sa|| sthira buddhiḥ asammūḍaḥ brahmaṇi sthitaḥ brahmavit priyaṁ prāpya na prahr̥ṣyēt (yā) apriyaṁ ca prāpya (saḥ) na udvijēt ||20||

||Sloka meanings||

sthira buddhiḥ asammūḍaḥ - one whose intellect is steady , one who is not deluded ,
brahmaṇi sthitaḥ- one who is established in Brahman
brahmavit - knower of Brahman
priyaṁ prāpya na prahr̥ṣyēt - does not get elated by getting what is desirable
(yā)apriyaṁ ca prāpya na udvijēt - nor get dejected getting what is not desirable

||Sloka summary||

"One whose intellect is steady, one who is not deluded,
one who is established in Brahman, one who is a knower of Brahman,
does not get elated by getting what is desirable,
nor get dejected getting what is not desirable." ||20||

"Not get elated by getting what is desirable, nor get dejected getting what is not desirable". That is the defining characteristic of one who is the knower of Brahman.

||Sloka 21||

bāhyasparṣēṣvēsaktātmā vindantyātmani sthitam|
sa brahmayōga yuktātmā sukhamakṣayamaśnutē ||21||

sa||bāhyasparṣēṣu asakta ātmā ātmani yat sukhaṁ vindati saḥ brahmayōga yuktātmā akṣayaṁ sukhaṁ āśnutē ||21||

||Sloka meanings||

bāhyasparṣēṣu asakta atmā - one whose mind is unattached to the external objects
ātmani yat sukhaṁ vindati - one who attains that bliss in the mind, which one gets in Self.
saḥ brahmayōga yuktātmā - he with his mind fixed on Bahaman in yoga
akṣayaṁ sukhaṁ āśnutē - acquires undecaying bliss

||Sloka summary||

"One whose mind is unattached to the external objects,
one who attains that bliss in the mind which one gets in Self,
he with his mind fixed on Brahman in yoga, acquires undecaying bliss" ||21||

Key point is the mind unattached with external objects. He becomes dispassionate un account of the absence of craving for the external world objects. The bliss he achieves is equivalent to the bliss one gets in Self.

||Sloka 22||

yē hi saṁsparśajā bhōgā duḥkhayōnaya ēva tē |
ādyantavantaḥ kauntēya na tēṣu ramatē budhaḥ ||22||

sa|| hēkauntēya ! saṁsparśajāḥ bhōgāḥ yē (santi) tē duḥkhayōnaya ēva hi | (tē) adi antavantaḥ (api)| (tataḥ) budhaḥ tēṣu na ramatē ||22||

||Sloka meanings||

kauntēya - O Kaunteya
saṁsparśajāḥ bhōgāḥ yē - the enjoyment one gets out of contact with external objects
tē duḥkhayōnaya ēva hi - they are the sources of sorrow.
(tē) adi antavantaḥ - They have a beginning and end
(tataḥ) budhaḥ tēṣu na ramatē - Hence the wise one's do not delight in them

||Sloka summary||

"O Kaunteya, the enjoyment one gets out of contact with external objects, they are the sources of sorrow.
They have a beginning and end. Hence the wise one's do not delight in them." ||22||

This is an echo of an earlier statement (2.14), where in Krishna says contact with external objects causes pleasure and pain. There Krishna says bear with them.

||Sloka 23||

śaknōtīhaiva yassōḍhuṁ prākcharīravimōkṣanāt |
kāmakrōdōdbhavaṁ vēgaṁ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ ||23||

sa|| yaḥ prāk śarīra vimōkṣaṇāt iha ēva kāmakrōdhōdbhavaṁ vēgaṁ sōḍhum śaknōti saḥ naraḥ yuktaḥ (yōgiḥ) | saḥ sukhī (ca)|23||

||Sloka meanings||

yaḥ iha ēva sōḍhum śaknōti - whoever is able to bear here itself
kāmakrōdhōdbhavaṁ vēgaṁ - the urge generated by desire and anger
prāk śarīra vimōkṣaṇāt - prior to leaving the body
saḥ naraḥ yuktaḥ (yōgiḥ) - that man is a yogi
saḥ sukhī- he is happy

||Sloka summary||

"Whoever is able to bear here itself the urge generated by desire and anger, prior to leaving the body,
that man is a yogi. He is happy." ||23||

The one who is able to withstand the urges arising from anger and passion in this very life, before they fall off the body, that one is a poised and a happy man.

||Sloka 24||

yō'ntaḥsukhaḥ antarārāmaḥ tathā antarjyōtirēva ca |
sa yōgī brahmanirvāṇaṁ brahmabhūtō'dhigacchati ||24||

sa|| yaḥ antaḥ sukhō'ntarārāmaḥ tathā yaḥ antarjyōtiḥ ēva saḥ yōgī brahma bhūtaḥ brahma nirvāṇam adhigacchati ||24||

||Sloka meanings||
yaḥ antaḥ sukhō'ntarārāmaḥ - whoever is happy within and whose pleasure is within
tathā yaḥ antarjyōtiḥ ēva - whoever has light within
saḥ yōgī brahma bhūtaḥ - that Yogi is imbued with Brahman
brahma nirvāṇam adhigacchati - attains the state of absolute extinction of all desires and passions
-

||Sloka summary||

"Whoever is happy within and whose pleasure is within, whoever has light within
that Yogi is imbued with Brahman, and attains the state of absolute extinction of all desires and passions." ||24||

Whoever is happy within and whose pleasure is within, whoever has light within wins peace here itself. He is imbued with Brahman means; he has realized Brahman here itself.

||Sloka 25||

labhantē brahmanirvāṇamr̥ṣayaḥ kṣīṇakalmaṣāḥ |
chinnadvaidhā yatātmānaḥ sarvabhūta hitē ratāḥ ||25||

sa|| kṣīṇa kalmaṣāḥ chinnadvaidhāḥ yatātmānaḥ (yaḥ) sarvabhūtē ratāḥ (tē) r̥ṣayaḥ brahmanirvāṇaṁ labhantē ||25||

||Sloka meanings||

kṣīṇa kalmaṣāḥ chinnadvaidhāḥ -
those whose sins have been diminished, whose doubts have been torn
yatātmānaḥ (yaḥ) sarvabhūtē ratāḥ -
those who have their mind under control, those who are focused on the welfare of all beings
(tē) r̥ṣayaḥ brahmanirvāṇaṁ labhantē -
such sages attain the state of absolute extinction of all desires and passions." ||24||

||Sloka summary||

"Those whose sins have been diminished, whose doubts have been torn,
those who have their mind under control, those who are focused on the welfare of all beings,
such sages attain the state of absolute extinction of all desires and passions." ||25||

Those whose sins have diminished, whose doubts have been dispelled, who have controlled their senses, who are devoted to the welfare of all beings - they are Sages or Rishis. Those sages with the knowledge of Self and the equanimity towards all they attain the state of Brahman. That is the ultimate liberation.

||Sloka 26||

kāma kōdhaviyuktānāṁ yatīnāṁ yata cētasām |
abhitō brahmanirvāṇaṁ vartatē viditātmanām ||26||

sa|| kāmakrōdhaviyuktānāṁ yatacētasām viditātmanām yatīnām brahmanirvāṇam abhitaḥ( sarvatra) vartatē ||26||

||Sloka meanings||

kāmakrōdhaviyuktānāṁ - those who are free from passion and anger
yatacētasām - those who have their mind under their control
viditātmanām - those who have known Self
yatīnām - those monks yatnaśīlulaku
brahmanirvāṇam abhitaḥ( sarvatra) vartatē - attain final emancipation every where

||Sloka summary||

" The monks who are free from passion and anger, who have their mind under their control
who have known Self, attain final emancipation everywhere." ||26||

Final emancipation everywhere means that he attains Brahman here itself and here after too.

||Sloka 27-28||

sparsān kr̥tvā bahirbāhyāṁścakṣuścaivāntarē bhr̥vōḥ|
prāṇāpānau samau kr̥tvā nasābhyāṇtaracāriṇau || 27||
yatēndriyamanōbuddhirmunirmōkṣa parāyaṇaḥ |
vigatēcchā bhayakrōdhō yassadāmukta ēva saḥ ||28||

sa|| yaḥ sparśān bahiḥ kr̥tvā cakṣuḥ bhruvōḥ antarē ēva (kr̥tvā) nāsābhyāntaracāriṇau prāṇāpānau samau kr̥tvā yatēṁdriya manōbuddhiḥ icchā bhaya krōdhaḥ vigataḥ mōkṣa parāyaṇaḥ muniḥ saḥ sadā muktaḥ ēva ||27-28||

||Sloka meanings||

yaḥ sparśān bahiḥ kr̥tvā - driving out the external objects
cakṣuḥ bhruvōḥ antarē ēva (kr̥tvā) - focusing his eyes on the juncture of the eyebrows
nāsābhyāntaracāriṇau prāṇāpānau samau kr̥tvā - making equal the Prana and Apana airs circulating inside the nose
yatēṁdriya manōbuddhiḥ - having controlled the organs, mind and intellect
icchā bhaya krōdhaḥ vigataḥ- free from desire, fear and anger
mōkṣa parāyaṇaḥ muniḥ - that sage desirous of Moksha
saḥ sadā muktaḥ ēva - he is free always

||Sloka summary||

"That sage desirous of Moksha is always free, driving out the external objects,
focusing his eyes on the juncture of the eyebrows,
making equal the Prana and Apana airs circulating inside the nose,
controlling the organs, mind and intellect, and free from desire, fear and anger."|| 27-28||

||Sloka 29||

bhōktāraṁ yajñatapasāṁ sarvalōka mahēśvaram|
suhr̥daṁ sarvabhūtānāṁ jñātvā māṁ śāntimr̥ccati ||29||

sa|| yajñatapasā bhōktāraṁ sarvalōka mahēśvaram sarvabhūtānāṁ suhr̥daṁ māṁ jñātvā śāṁtiṁ r̥cchati ||

||Sloka meanings||

yajñatapasā bhōktāraṁ - enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities
sarvalōka mahēśvaram - Lord of all the worlds
sarvabhūtānāṁ suhr̥daṁ - friend of all creatures
māṁ jñātvā - knowing Me thus
śāṁtiṁ r̥cchati - one attains peace

||Sloka summary||

" One attains peace knowing Me thus,
as the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities, Lord of all the worlds, and friend of all creatures." ||29||

It means that " Knowing that the Bhagavan is the enjoyer of Yagnyas, Lord of all worlds, well-wisher of all, helps one attain peace. Which means that apart from the Karma yoga and Jnyana yoga - bhakti yoga too provides one with a way to liberation

Arjuna's question led Krishna to insist that path of action is supreme to a path of renunciation of action. Stating that effectively both the path of knowledge and path of action are same since both lead to the same goal.

Clearly not performing any action with the thought that such inaction will not create bondage is ignorance. The point is not about renouncing actions. It is more about giving up the desire for the results of action

One should not give up action of daily life. What one should give up is the anxiety about the results of such actions or even the fruits of such action. Sometimes, one is prone to blame God for his own seemingly unending problems. That is not correct. God is not responsible for the sins we commit or the good deeds we achieve. With this basic understanding one has to proceed on the right path with full faith in himself.

Controlling the interest in materialistic things one can practice control of senses. When one is trapped by the desire for a particular thing one needs to review the need for that particular thing so desired. This critical review of needs brings in the control of senses.

When the mind is running towards worldly affairs etc, one needs to alert mind to bring in the fact that there is no permanency in the joy that one gets. The joy or happiness that is generated internally has a lasting effect. It is like the story of one who bought a dozen mangoes because he likes them. He felt good eating one or two. But by the third that happiness of eating mangoes has decreased and probably the satisfaction declines.

So it should be obvious that the happiness, satisfaction obtained an external device is limited by time or the device life. The happiness generated internally however is long lasting.

While Rishis obtain liberation through enquiry into self, control of senses, and seeing all beings as equal, for one immersed in daily life achieving peace is through seeing Bhagavan as the benevolent friend, the leader of the three worlds and worshipping or meditating on him.

iti śrīmadbhavadgītā sūpaniṣatsu brahma vidyāyāṁ yōgaśāstrē
śrīkr̥ṣṇārjuna saṁvādē karmasannyāsayōgōnāma
paṁcamō'dhyāyaḥ
ōm tat sat

||om tat sat ||