Bhagavadgita !

Chapter 11

Viswarupa Samdarsana Yoga Summary

Sanskrit text in Devanagari, Kannada, Gujarati, English , Telugu

||om tat sat||
अर्जुन उवाच:
मदनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यमध्यात्म संज्ञितम्।
यत्वयोक्तं वचस्तेन मोहोsयं विगतो मम॥1||
"My ignorance is gone as a result of those words spoken out of compassion by you concerning the secret of self".

ओं श्रीकृष्णपरब्रह्मणे नमः
श्रीमद् भगवद्गीत

Talking to Arjuna who listened attentively to Krishna talk about that knowledge of Brahman which is not known to many in the Rajavidya Rajaguhya yoga and was delighted , Krishna says the following Vibhuti yoga.

"प्रीयामाणाय ते" meaning there by that " to you who is delighted "with what has been told , " हितकाम्यया" - "desiring your beneficial interest", "वक्ष्यामि" - "I am telling you".

What is that Krishna wanted tell Arjuna ?

That was about the divine manifestations of Brahman . And that was what was revealed in Vibhuti Yoga. The revealing of the manifestation of the Brahman in various forms is to reinforce the belief of the Bhakta, which then enables him focus only on Brahman without any distractions.

Having heard of the various manifestations as part of Vibhuti yoga, Arjuna wants to see that 'Universal formÓ if possible. But before asking for his wish Arjuna must make his confession that he has fully imbibed that belief of Brahman. So the chapter 11 starts with Arjuna making the confession.

अर्जुन उवाच:
मदनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यमध्यात्म संज्ञितम्।
यत्वयोक्तं वचस्तेन मोहोsयं विगतो मम॥1||
Arjuna says "My ignorance is gone as a result of those words spoken out of compassion by you concerning the secret of self".

Here Arjuna confesses that the ignorance or delusion that made him see this world and the relationships as though they are permanent is now gone. By stating " मोहोयं विगतोमम " , "that delusion of mine is gone", Arjuna makes a firm confessional statement.

One can say that Bhagavan has given the nectar of Gita which worked like a medicine. Because of which the darkness of ignorance is removed. There are many learnings in this world. But all learnings are not a cure for the darkness of ignorance. The supreme and secret knowledge of Brahman is one that removes the ignorance. It is not a knowledge that is easily delivered by masters to their disciples. Only when the disciples are tested and found ready then the masters part with that knowledge.

Krishna through his teaching to Arjuna made it available to all.

Arjuna makes that confession with a request ." I heard all about your various manifestations, I wish to see that divine form of yours". Arjuna already said - "शिष्यस्तेहं"- meaning " I am your disciple". In line with that relationship he makes his wish known along with appropriate clauses - "यदि मन्यसे तत् शक्यं" (11.04) " if you think it is possible" .

His was not a demand but a request to be fulfilled if the master deems he is fit to see.

Krishna says in his response:
न तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुसा।
" You cannot see my form with those eyes of yours !
Because of the nature of that form. The form is manifold.
"नानाविधानि दिव्यानि" - of different types of divine forms
"नाना वर्णाकृतीनि च" - of various colors and shapes
"शतसोध सहस्रशः रूपाणी" -hundreds and thousands of forms

What are those hundreds and thousands of forms?
"अदित्यान् वसून् रुद्रान् अश्विनौ मरुतस्तथा"-
- sons of Aditi, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Ashwins, likewise the Maruts ( the winds ! )
"अदृष्ट पूर्वाणि"- not seen before
"अश्चर्याणि" - wonders
"स चराचरम् जगत् कृत्स्नम्"- the universe with the moving and unmoving as whole !(11.06)

Not only that, the universal form reflects more.
What is that?

यच्चान् द्रष्टुमिच्छसि - what you want to see ( the future!)
तत् च - even that(11.07)

Krishna says that the whole universe with its moving and unmoving elements is part of that universal form which he wants to show including something more which might interest Arjuna.

"That form" he tells Arjuna :
"न तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुसा|
"You cannot see that from with your eyes".(11.08)
"दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुःपश्यमे योग मैश्वरम्।"
" I am giving you divine-eyes . See my divine form"

Saying so Krishna gives Arjuna the divine eyes showing him the universal form of himself, the Brahman. Krishna first described ( slokas 11.05- 11.07) the universal form to tell Arjuna why it cannot be seen by normal eyes and then having given him the divine sight Krishna shows him the form he described himself. Seeing that divine form Sanjaya describes the from in the same way. The slokas detailing the universal form are delightful to read

संजय उवाच
अनेकवक्रनयनं अनेकाद्भुतदर्शनम्।
अनेक दिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुथम्॥10||
दिव्यमाल्यांबरधरं दिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम्।
सर्वाश्चर्यमयं देवं अनन्तं विश्वतो मुखम्॥11||
दिविसूर्य सहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता।
यदि भास्सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः॥12||
What is that form? It is a form with many eyes and mouths, possessed of many wondrous sights of many heavenly ornaments, heavenly weapons held up as if they are ready. With heavenly garlands, vestures anointed with heavenly unguents all wonderful boundless with faces on all sides. The splendor of the mighty form resembled that of a thousand sons present all at once. Arjuna saw the whole world established in one and separated into many groups.

Seeing such form Arjuna shaken but filled with wonder pays obeisance many times and praises the form of Krishna with great respect.(11.14)
अर्जुन उवाच:
पश्यामि देवांस्तव देव देहे
"O Lord I see in your body.."(11.15)

" O Lord ! I see in your body all the Gods as well as all the moving and nonmoving beings, the creator Brahma as well as the seven Rishis , the divine serpents. Oh Lord ! I see you as one possessing many hands, bellies , faces and eyes. But I do not see the beginning or the middle or the end of the form !
अर्जुन उवाच
त्वमक्षरं परमं वेदितव्यं
त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम्।
त्वा व्ययश्शाश्वत धर्मगोप्ता
सनातनस्त्वं पुरुषो मतो मे॥18||

" You are the imperishable Supreme Brahman that ought to be known. You are the support of the entire universe. You are the protector of Dharma and you are the eternal person. That is my belief."

" The entire space between the earth and sky as also the space in all directions is pervaded by you. Seeing that fearsome and wonderful form of yours all the three worlds are shaken. The venerable sages and siddhas are singing hymns to you saying 'may all be well with the whole world'. O Krishna ! Seeing that form with many faces eyes hands and bellies looking fearsome with many teeth, all creatures are extremely distressed. So am I."

"All the sons of Dhritarashtra , as also Bhishma , Drona ,Karna along with groups of other kings are entering your mouth with fearsome teeth and are being crushed . O Lord ! You lick your lips while devouring all the creatures. Oh Lord of the fearful form ! Tell me. Who are you ?"(11.26)

Then Krishna tells Arjuna who is shaken :
श्री भगवानुवाच।
कालोsस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो
लोकान् समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः||32||
"I am the death, the destroyer of all, grown in stature. I have now become active to devour people."

Krishna already told Arjuna "you will also see what you want" ( meaning future)". So the universal form also carried the future. Accordingly Arjunas sees Duryodhana and his brothers entering the fearsome mouth of the death in that universal form.

So Krishna adds :
"All the warriors of the confronting armies will cease to exist even without you " . Krishna drives home the point . " Hence Oh Arjuna get up and fight. Defeat the enemies and attain the fame ."

द्रोणं च भीष्मं च जयद्रथं च
कर्णम् तथाsनान्यपि योधवीरान्।
मयाहतां स्त्वं जहि माव्यधिष्ठा
युध्यस्व जेतासि रणे सपत्नान्॥34||

saying - 'You kill Drona , Bhishma , Karna and other warriors who are already killed by me.'
Krishna says :
"मा व्यधिष्टाः" - Do not be afraid !
"रणे सपत्नान् जेतासि" - In the battle you can best the enemies.

The message of Bhagavan is that leaving everything to him and having his protection, "perform your rightful duty without fear". "मा व्यधि" ष्टाः means "not to be afraid". In the life's battles there will be any number of ups and downs one has to face. In facing those battles one has to remember this exhortation "माव्यधिष्टाः" - "not be afraid". Like Arjuna offering everything the Brahman and one should perform his duty .Then he will be "जेतासि" - victorious !.

Hearing this exhortation of Krishna Arjuna sings his hymn of praise .

"You are the Vayu Yama Agni Chandra and Brahma too. Obeisance to you a thousand times"(11.39)

" अजानता महिमानं तवेदं " -
" Not knowing this greatness of yours",
"In my ignorance I would have called you - हॆ कृष्णा हॆ यादवा हॆ सखा
carelessly . Please forgive me for that".(11.41)
अदृष्ट पूर्वं हृषितोsस्मि दृष्ट्वा
भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे।
तदेव मे दर्शय देव रूपं
प्रशीद देवेश जगन्निवास॥45||

" Seeing that form which was not seen before I am delighted. But my mind is distressed with fear . Oh Bhagavan please show me the previous form only. "

Hearing that plea of Arjuna, Krishna says being delighted (प्रसन्नेन मया) "shown you the universal form not seen by anybody" ( अदृष्टपूर्वं) .
Then Krishna elaborates on how difficult it is to have a chance to see that universal form.
न वेदयज्ञाध्ययनैर्नदानै
र्न च क्रियाभिर्न तपोभिरुग्रैः
एवं रूपः शक्य अहं नृलोके
द्रष्टुं त्वदन्येन कुरुप्रवीर॥48||

न वेदयज्ञाध्यनैः
- Not by the study of Vedas or performance of Yagnyas
न दानैः
- not by gifts
न च क्रियाभिः
- not by any actions
उग्रैः तपॊभिः
- not by severe penance
It is not possible to be seen by any of the above

Such a form which was not possible for many was thus seen by Arjuna with the divine eyes given by Bhagavan himself. Having made him aware of the special dispensation Krishna again comes back to his normal form as requested by Arjuna .

While he said that such a form cannot be seen by those even with the study of Vedas , Krishna proceeds to tell who can have that Darshan.
भक्त्या त्वनन्यया शक्य अहमेवं विधोsर्जुन।
ज्ञातुं द्रष्टुं च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुं च परन्तप॥54||
अनन्यया भक्त्या -with exceptional devotion
तु - only
ज्ञातुम् - to know
द्रष्टुं च - to see
प्रवेष्टुंच - to enter into or becoming one with ( Brahman)
शक्यः - it is possible

With exceptional devotion (1) to know (2) to see (3) to enter into - "ज्ञातुं, द्रष्टुं , प्रवेष्टुं", are the three stages of attaining the Brahman. First is the knowledge of the goal and the knowledge of the path to the goal , then comes the path to see the Brahman pervading every space. Then comes the process of experiencing the Brahman.

That is liberation.

Continuing the theme , Krishna says -
मत्कर्मकृन्मत्परमो मद्भक्तसंगवर्जितः।
निर्वैरः सर्वभूतेषु यस्स मामेति पाण्डव॥55||
मत् कर्मकृत्
- performing actions for me ( कर्मयोग)
मत् परमो
- believing me as the Supreme ( ध्यानयोग)
मत् भक्तः
- being devoted to me ( भक्ति योग )
सर्वभूतेषु निर्वैरः
- having no enmity for all beings
- having no attachment ( ज्ञानयोग)
- such a one !

Such a one attains the state of Brahman:

Thus Krishna says : "one who works for me, who accepts me as the Supreme Goal, who is devoted to me , who is devoid of attachments, and is free from enmity towards all beings - he attains me".

This was what was told earlier also.

But having witnessed the supreme form of Bhagavan the words now attain an even more potent force.

The universal form was thus to firm up the mind of Arjuna, the Bhakta on the supreme being while reinforcing what all was said earlier.
This Sloka (55) is also considered as the sum and substance of the whole Gita

|| ओम् तत् सत्||
मत्कर्मकृन्मत्परमो मद्भक्तसंगवर्जितः।
निर्वैरः सर्वभूतेषु यस्स मामेति पाण्डव॥55||
"O Arjuna! he who works for me, who accepts me as the Supreme Goal, who is devoted to me , who is devoid of attachments, and is free from enmity towards all beings - he attains me !"
|| om tat sat||