Tatva Bhodha 3 !

Athato Brahma jignyasaa ! ..

Sadhana chatushtayam !! ....

With Sanskrit text in Devanagari , Telugu and Kannada

The first lesson started with the question asking what is " Sadhana chatushtayam ?"
The text raises the question and proceeds with the answer in the next four lines.

साधनचतुष्ठयम् किं?
(इ) नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः !
(इइ) इहामुत्रार्थफलभोग विरागः ।
(इइइ) शमादिषट्क संपत्तिः ।
(इव्) मुमुक्षत्वं च इति ।

Among the four parts of " Sadhana chatushtayam , the first two namely " nitya nitya vivekah " the one who can distinguish between the perishable and imperishable and the Viragah , namely the one who is not concerned about enjoying the fruits here and now have already been elaborated.

(i) नित्यानित्यविवेकः कः ?
नित्यवस्त्वेकंब्रह्म तद्व्यतिरिक्तं सर्वं अनित्यम् ।
अयमेव नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः ।

(ii) विरागः कः ?
इहस्वर्गभोगेषु इच्छाराहित्यं ।

Then what is left are two more characteristics namely 'Samaadishatka sampatti' and 'mumukshatvam cha' !

So in the following these two are elaborated.

First we start with 'Samaadi Shatka sampattih' ! the six fold wealth !

(iii) शमादिसाधनसंपत्तिः का ?
शमो दम उपरतिस्तितिक्षा श्रद्धा समाधानं च इति ।


Samaadi Shatkasampattih , is the Six fold wealth starting with Sama adi ( etc) . So the natural question of the follower is - what is this six fold wealth starting with Sama ?

The answer is that the six fold wealths starting with Sama are : Sama, Dama, Uparati, TitikSha, Sraddhaa, and Samadhanam (cha). These are six !!

The natural follow up question is what is Sama, Dama, Uparati, TitikSha, Sraddhaa, and Samadhanam

शमः कः ?
मनोनिग्रहः ।

Sama is control over mind or mastery over mind ! In words it may seem simple . But we know that even when we are praying our mind travels with speed of light and is with our loved ones across the seven oceans or somewhere else or our mind is scrambling stories or unscrambling stories in the back ground even as we do some thing else in the foreground . It is that ability to keep the mind quiet from straying at all possible events that is called Sama.

Without a question this is an aspect important from many angles. Even in normal learning the one who has such control , the one who is able to focus on the lesson given by the Gurus will grasp the lesson.

In our office duties too if the mind is not wandering , stays focused then our work gets done too faster !

दमः कः ?
चक्षुरादि बाह्येंद्रिय निग्रहः ।

The question is what is Dama?

The Answer is as follows; Dama is the control of the outgoing senses like the eyes etc. If one is already rich with Sama then Dama is probably automatic . But Dama is independent . Dama is the control of external senses. One may be angry , realize that anger is not appropriate and control the same and there by not indulge in harsh words and other forms of exhibiting the anger ! . That ability is dama. The control of senses aids in control of the mind too . Attaining control of Senses Dama can be thought of the as the first step in control of the mind too !! So Dama aids in achieving Sama

उपरमः कः ?
स्वधर्मानुष्ठानमेव ।

The question is - What is uparama. It is also known as Uparati .

Uparama - It is the strict observance of ones own Duty ( Dharma). Upa - rama is from dhatu Rama - meaning reveling in - upa- rama is withdrawal from reveling in ! Which given the context of Sama and Dama means not reveling in other things and performing his own duty ! If Sama and dama are under control , then uparati / uparama is easily achievable.

तितीक्षः कः ?
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखादि सहिष्णुत्वम् ।

The question is what is 'titiksha' ?

Titiksha is the ability to endurance of Heat and cold ; or pleasure and pain , praise and censure . It could be conducive to your own happiness or may not be conducive to your happiness. The ability to bear the non conducive elements is titiksha. The life is not necessarily full of happy tidings. It is in difficult times , and in respect of non conducive aspects of events the titiksha , the ability to endure becomes evident !!

श्रद्धाकीदृशी ?
गुरुवाक्यादिषु विश्वासः श्रद्धा ।

The question about the fifth of the six fold wealth is - what is the nature of Sraddha .

Sraddha is the Faith in the words of Gurus and scriptures . Faith is very important . Without faith you cannot move an inch . If you are studying vedanta one must have faith in the Vedas. If you have no faith in Vedas then study becomes devoid of belief .When you study for your degree you have to have faith in the texts prescribed then only you can concentrate.If you are going to a doctor you have to have faith in the Doctor !

The last of the six fold wealth is Samadhanam.The natural question is what is 'samadhanam'

समाधानं किं
चित्तैकाग्रता ।

The answer is as follows; The single pointed focus of mind is 'Samadhanam '.

Thus elaborating the six fold wealth , we know it consists of ' control of mind, control of senses, observing ones own duty , the ability to put up with adverse conditions, Faith in Gurus words etc, and the single pointed focus . If one has these six qualities there is nothing he cannot achieve,

(iv) मुमुक्षुत्वं किं ?
मोक्षो मे भूयाद् इति इच्छा ।

The fourth element of the Sadhana chatushtayam is mumukshatvam !

So the question is what is 'mumukshatvam'. The desire to attain liberation or Moksha is called mumukshatvam.

एतद् साधन चतुष्ठयम् ।
ततस्तत्वविवेकस्याधिकरणो भवन्ति ।

These are the four elements of Sadhana chatushtayam !!.

This, Sadhana chatushtayam becomes a prerequisite for learning vedanta

Thus ends the lesson on Sadhana chatushtayam !!

om tat sat !!